This research work, THE IMPACT OF SATELLITE TELEVISION ON NIGERIAN CULTURE, is set to see how satellite television has affected the knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by Nigerians as a member of the society. The first chapter explains the introduction of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, significance of the study, delimitation of the study, limitation of the study, historical background of Osun State Polytechnic, Iree and definition of terms. Chapter two is on the detailed discussion of literature review of satellite television and Nigerian culture. Also chapter three involves the research method adopted for the research work which formed the basis for the data analysis and discussion for the study in chapter four. The last chapter which is chapter five gives the summary, conclusion and recommendation in order to make Nigerians know the effectiveness of satellite television transmission on Nigerian culture.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Science and Technology have played a tremendous role in the electronic media and in the formation and transmission of the customs, beliefs, arts, and ways of life in Nigeria in particular. The science of electronics which started more than a century ago has gone a long way in changing people’s pattern of life in many ways. The Radio, Television, Video Cassette Recorder (VCR) and Compact Disc (CD) players have for instance contributed to the revolution in the communications industry having a corresponding effect on culture formation and transmission.
As noted by James Wood (1994:21) there have been four epochs in communication and broadcasting. These he says have been defined as:
- The wire age, 1840 – 1900
- The wireless telegraphy age that is the time of long wave telegraphy transmitters.
- The age of sound broadcasting for entertainment purposes, 1920.
- The age of television broadcasting, 1939 – 1946 to the present day, to the aforementioned, can now be added to the satellite age which began in 1965, and the age of fibre-optic communications, which has already begun. Each of these ages has earned its place in history.
The satellite is the communication technology which operates by receiving electronic messages from the ground “up-links” on earth stations and re-transmitting them through “down-link” to other earth stations. It should however be noted that satellite does not only pass signals from under ground stations but also to other satellites. Stephen Alies quoted by Hollens (1991:1) describe the satellite as the single most important piece of new hardware in the telecommunication revolution.
Undoubtedly, new media and new forms of media delivery have continually appeared throughout history. Today we have witnessed the arrival of a global community brought about by advances in communication technologies. We have a system of direct broadcasting by satellites which make it possible for equipping with small, rooftop dishes to receive original programmes from powerful satellites orbiting above (Dominick 1990:558).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Since satellite television’s inception in Nigeria, it has always been raising expectations about harnessing the medium to promote Nigerian culture, but the question of how satellite television has fared so far in the promotion of Nigerian remains unanswered. This has long been a subject of concern and discussion. It is obvious that the Nigerian culture is facing submersion from the mass-produced outpourings of commercial broadcasting by the Westerns. Most importantly this study sets out to know how Nigerians with substantially different social and cultural values cope with the broadcast content of satellite television.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS / HYPOTHESIS
- To what extent has satellite broadcasting important in the formation and transmission of Nigerian culture?
- To what extent has Nigerian culture been affected by satellite television transmission?
- To what extent has satellite television being advantageous to Nigerian culture?
- To what extent has satellite television enhances the World Global Village propounded by Marshall Mcluhan?
- To what extent has the exposure of satellite television has negative effects on Nigerians?
1.4 PURPOSE OF STUDY
This study, the impact of satellite television on Nigerian culture sets out to know how Nigerians with substantially different and diverse social and cultural values cope with the broadcast content of satellite television.
The importance of culture to any given set of people can not be over-emphasized, but over the years propagation and transmission of the Nigerian culture is gradually going into oblivion.
Nigerians now fashion their way of life to that of the Westerns which ought not to be so, this study is bound to unravel the mystery behind this act, specifically the effects satellite television has on the Nigerian culture.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
Nigerians stand to benefit from this research in a way more than one. Since, they (Nigerians) forms the nucleus of this research, the findings will be beneficial to Nigerians in adjusting and correcting their attitudes towards the broadcast content of satellite television. Also this work will also be beneficial to broadcasters as means of influencing and propagating the culture of the audience of satellite television and more importantly, this work is a vital contribution to the body of knowledge.
1.6 DELIMITATION (SCOPE) OF STUDY
This study, the impact of satellite television on Nigerian culture, uses the students of Osun State Polytechnic, Iree as its case study; as such the findings may not reflect the general views and opinions of Nigerians therefore generalizing the findings may not be appropriate because the analysis is only on what the researcher can get from the students which serves as the case study. Also satellite television is an urban phenomenon and since the rural dwellers are not exposed to it, this research finding may not be applicable to them.
1.7 LIMITATION OF STUDY
This research is subjected to inexplicable setbacks considering the global economic recession therefore visitation to relevant places is limited; crucial resources and materials at my disposal to make this research a success could be used. Undoubtedly, time is another factor which has to be considered, to ensure a timely and up-to-date report of the research.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Impact: – This is having strong effects on a particular thing.
- Satellite Television: – The totality of the communication and technological process that allows for the transmission of audio signals by receiving electronic messages from the ground “up-links” on earth stations and transmitting them through “down-link” to other earth stations and made available to a heterogeneous diverse mass audience simultaneously through decoder and a receiving dish.
- Culture: – The complex whole which included knowledge belief, art, moral, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.
- Telegraphy: – This is the technology associated with sending messages electrically and providing a written record of the message transferred.
- Orbit: – A curved path followed by a satellite as it moves around planet, star, moon etc.
- Dish: – This is a type of radio or television aerial that picks up or sends signals from a transmitter that is orbiting around the earth.
1.9 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF OSUN STATE POLYTECHNIC, IREE
Osun State Polytechnic, Iree was formerly known as one of the satellite campuses of the Polytechnic, Ibadan in the then Oyo State. The four satellite campuses were situated in Eruwa, Saki, Esa-Oke and Iree and they took-off from 1981/1982 academic session.
Following the creation of Osun State in August 1991, the satellite campus of The Polytechnic Ibadan at Iree was changed to Osun State Polytechnic, Iree.
Each of these aforementioned satellite campuses was led by a Director who was responsible to the Rector for the administration and discipline of the campus.
Osun State Polytechnic, Iree is one of the State owned tertiary institutions started its operations precisely on October 12, 1992 under the leadership of Dr. Opakunle who was the pioneer Rector of the institution.
Today, the institution is recognized among its peers through the turning out of graduates with excellence in character and technology.
As at present, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree can boast of six (6) functional faculties which include Engineering, Science, Information and Communication Technology, Management Studies, Financial Studies and Environmental Studies which is the youngest of all.
Few years ago, in order to demonstrate its name of excellence in character and technology, the institution developed its website for the accessibility of the whole world.
In 2009, the institution also celebrated her third convocation ceremony which led to award of Diploma Certificate, prizes and conferment of fellowship.
Since the operation of the institution in 1992, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree has witnessed different Students Union Government (SUG) that serves as an intermediary between the management and the entire students.