EFFECT OF MASS MEDIA CAMPAIGN ON THE HIV/AIDS MENACE IN NIGERIA
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 Background of study
1.1 Historical aspect of HIV
1.2 Statement of the research problems
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Research hypothesis
1.6 Research hypothesis
1.7 Definition of terms
1.9 Scope and limitation of the study
2.1 Source of literature
2.2 Literature review
3.1 Research method
3.2 Research design
3.3 Sampling procedure
3.4 Measuring instrument
3.5 Data collection
3.6 Data analysis
3.7 Expected results
4.1 Data analysis and result
4.2 sample characteristics
Summary and Recommendation
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The media as had been established can provide for audience members information on Varity of issue. By emphasizing certain topic stressing particular interpretation and projects specific themes the media creates some distorted impression with their “ definition” portraying reflection of the real society ie if sexual promiscuity is regularly portrayed as widely practices and accepted in this sense, the viewers may accept such definition as normative in the society because of media definition when somebody defines his/ her own over behavior in such a situation norms internalized from media sources may guide his/ her conduct.
The media has gone a long way in teaching people some behavioral practices and pervading them to internalize the norm. the presence of media has attended the nature of societal communication norms
Large advance has concentrated on the media to provide a continuos flow of news entrapment political commentaries and other types of messages people depend on te media for various forms of gratification open content and if denied such communication they feel deprived and show (Benelson 1950:887-898) the potential effect of the media in shaping attitudes and behaviors of people has been the subject of considerable debate because many faction both good and bad aspects modify media influence. It is clear that the media to have at least and indirect influence on people attitudes and this is by making them aware of events outside their immediate experience / knowledge.
We have learned through research that the images and world carried by media determines within the limitation posed by intervening factors opinions of people and this actions woodier wilson 1998” said “unless you get the right thing go wrong it is believed that the perfect world there is often a vital step to finding the cure for many social ills.
In this it is believed that extensive coverage and true information from media houses on the Hiv / AIDS campaign will reach and perhaps touch on the sexual habits of youths particularly in Enugu environs.
The backgrounds of this study reflect that this epidemic is called Hiv/ Aids when a disease is sexually transmitted the public and efforts to eradicate it are fortified because of its effect to the society. As at present one may say that AIDS is our published, it is the worst disease to have struck human rale since the plaque of the 14th century.
Some health experts are saying that this will cause even more deaths and destruction then the black plague while experts are looking for remedy to this dreadful disease others claim to have the capability and even cure for Aids victim but was said to have lacked scientific proofs. Mean while statistic should that is million people are with this disease and do not know it for year (VAN IMPT 1987 P.1)
1.1 HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF HIV/ AIDS
The devastating disease “acquired immune deficiency syndrome” (AIDS ) and human immune virus (HIV ) came into the world in 1981 when Dr Michael Gottle of the university of California noticed unusual disease “Pnemocystiscarini prieumonia “ in four patients that were homosexuals and all below 40years age (Njoku, 1989) .
The world health organization (WHO) explained it to be a virus of “undermined geographic origin” the first case of HIV / AIDS were identified in the U.S.A in 1981 and the disease was first recognized in Uganda in 1982, but cases of it had been observed in the early 1970’s before it was fully identified. The virus causing it HIV – was discovered in 1983 it was not up unit march 1986 that the second type of AIDS virus named HIV –2 were discovered (Njoku obi 1989) the first confirmed Aids case in African was reported in 1984 in Nairobi kenya apparently AIDS came from green monkeys in Africa. This is the theory and scientific proof and it moves to what is known as the “species barrier” from animal to humans this has terrible effect on human and its gotten through monkeys but or bestiary (sexual activity between a human and an animal) but the shocking thing is that one person of American has committed such acts with animals (VAN IMPT 1987:29)
It is estimated that among couples where one partner is a carrier there is one in four chances that if carriers is male he will infect the female and one in ten possibility that the female will infect the male (THE CUARDIAN JULY 2 1992) prognosis (force cast of problem development ) current statistical report suggest that if a person becomes HIV positive (A) there is a 60 tendency of developing in AIDS within 10 years of diagnosis. The figure is based on studies of group of HIV individuals who were inflected 10 years ago. The remaining 40% many suffer health problem such as skin and genital diseases one as person has been diagnosed as having full blown AIDS life expectancy is an average of 20 months ( THE GUARDIANS, JULY 2, 1992)Hiv/Aids
HIV /AIDs is common homosexual intravenous drug abuser hemophiliacs and recipients of blood transfusion and heterosexual partner of AIDS victim. Among the risk groups Homo’s constitute about 75% of the victims’ intravenous drug abusers constitute about 15% and the remaining 10% is distributed among other groups (Njoku obi1989)
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
HIV /AIDS can be transmitted through sexual relationship (homosexual or heterosexual) blood transfusion and meternofetal (before ordinary or after birth) This certain individuals are placed at a very high risk of being exposed to the disease (Njoku obi, 1989)
It takes on the average of 29 months and 12 months between exposure to the virus and manifestation of AID in adults and children respectively. The virus can however, remain dormant in an individual for up to Aid in children partly explain the time high estimate risk of AIDS is children compared to adults although their immune system and blood value may be relevant says Prof. Njoku (Njoku obi 1989)Hiv/Aids
THE NIGERIAN SITUATION
On the 24th of June1986, the then honorable minister for health Prof. ransom kuti, uncapurated the national “Expert advisory committed on AIDS (NEACA) to advice him on the statue of AIDS in the country and possibly measure to control it’s spread up to the end of 1988, NEACA has screened over 25,000 person which proved positive for.
The first person to die of AID was a thirteen years old girl who was discovered to be Hiv carries in 1996 there was total infection of AIDS victim which toll up to 22.6 million’ where as 6.1million died of this AIDS. And if the epidemic is unchecked the figure will go up by the tear 2005. Over 300 people infected daily 3% are male while the remaining 7% are female (THE GUARDIANS JULY 31, 2000 )
Last week it was reported to deputy governor of cross river state chief John Okpat that 150 person tested positive in the others state of the federation.Hiv/Aids
Obviously, AIDS is no respecter of person. Any body can fall victim to it at any time except of one play safe by using condom or by abstaining totally from anything that will expose one to the disease or victim. earlier researches done or this subject have shown that the greatest numbers infected are from the age of 20- 40 yrs. This disease that touches the most intimate and most private past of human lives without vaccines for prevention and cure demands our greatest concern effort and our utmost attention.Hiv/Aids
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEMS
The role of mass media in a society cannot be over emphasized. It gives beyond the ordinary art and science of new gathering and dissemination to shaping opinions and attitude of people accurate analysis and interpretation of news event through their information education entertaining and socializing function the mass media affect people attitude and behavior (Graham mitten 1983 32 )
In this topic however the effect of mass media campaign on HIV /AIDS menace in Nigeria is knowledge acquire through frequency of firm, and coverage of campaigns behavior instincts and knowledge of sexuality supporting a programme and other factors are employed to measure persuasion campaign effectiveness. In view of there programmes it therefore becomes necessary to take a had look at the role of the media in the HIV / AIDS menace in our society especially in Enugu metropolis.Hiv/Aids
However research is a systematic search of knowledge facts with the primary aim of finding solution to existing problem. Proper identification of the problem (s) steaminess the direction of the study. Therefore the problem this work aims at solving are
Research work aim at solving are.
a. To know the effectiveness of media toward informing people on the ills of HIV/AIDS
b. To determine the major sources of information regarding to HIV /AIDS
c. To effect exposure to HIV/AIDS campaign on the sexual behavior of the people in Enugu metropolis.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of studying the effect of media campaign on the HIV/ AIDS menace in Nigeria is to know what AIDS really means and also to let people know that AIDS is real
Furthermore to know whether the number of AIDS victims are increasing or decreasing with the campaign on the above the study of this topic will also help us to educate the people, on the various way AIDS can be contacted because many people engage themselves in dirty activities which they don’t know that it is a way of contacting AIDS for instance a woman infected with AIDS virus transmit it to her future during pregnancy or to her baby during breast feeding blood transfusion using one string to inject so many people manicure and pedicure barbing different people with are razor blade all these are the way people can contact AIDS.Hiv/Aids
Another reason for embarking on this topic is to assist in spreading the gospel on the threats of AIDS
The topic at the end will help the general public in Enugu to know murch people have being infected with AIDS and it will also help them to know whether this compassing has any effect or . the reason for embarking on the topic can never be over looked because it will help us to know whether the number of people affected in increasing or decreasing for instance according to press release by Dr Tony Eloike, Enugu co-ordinate of AIDS campaign said that from what is on the ground with AIDS in Enugu state expect projection is that by this year we will be contending with AIDS in Enugu state expect projection is that by the year we would be contending with 130,000 new HIV infection per year, 11,00 cases of AIDS per year 3,000 AIDS death per year 10,00 AIDS related orphan per and the age is 20 – 24 years of age.
The study is interested in the audience especially the youth the question is do their sex and age affect the way they perceive the message are they really getting the information about the consequences of the epidemic.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research work will be of great value to the people of Enugu and the entire nation at large. It is during this research that we come to understand that even in the remote village here (Enugu) people are affected with HIV/AIDS because they refuse to lake the advice given by the campaign coordinator and ministry of health. The compassing as we have see is still to achieve many purpose on the people because they still think that the compaign is meat only for those who engage themselves in sexual immorality not knowing that there are so many ways one can contact HIV/AIDS, these are according to “A Guide for survived” published by hairs country medical society and Houston Academy of medicine.
1. Sexual contact: This means having sexual intercourse (vagina or and ) with intercourse can lake place between a man and a woman or because the penis can invisibly tear in the tissue of the rectum allowed infected serve to the blood stream directly. It occurs as well as vagina though not often
2. Blood contamination:- This happens when the HIV/AIDS get directly into the blood stream through the transfusion of infected blood into uninfected
3. Mother to child: A woman who is infected with the HIV/AIDS virus may spread the disease to her baby during pregnancy or during child birth. There also the possibility of passing it on to the child through breast feeding.Hiv/Aids
4. Use of unsterilized razor that has been used on an infected person is another means of transferring HIV/AIDS.
Therefore you can see that if the person of Enugu can adhere to the campaign the number of people that are yet to be infield will decrease because according tot he compaign coordinator no medicine has been found for the cure of the disease.
If the Enugu people and the gender public adhere to the compaign it will be benefic to both the youths and adults because the disease is no respect of any body.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Do people get most information about HIV/AIDS through the mass media?
2. Does exposure to HIV/AIDS comparing discourage youths form sexual promiscuity?
3. Do youth that are single expose themselves more to HIV/ AIDS then those who are married?
4. Is the campaign helping in decreasing or increasing the number of AIDS victims in Enugu ?
1.6 RESEARCH HYOTHESES
The research hypothesis for this study is derived from research question they are
1. Hi most respondent will get information about AIDS through mass media.
Ho: most respondent are not likely to be informed about HIV/ AIDS.
2. H2: Exposure to HIV/ AIDS campaign will tend to discourage youth from sexual misconduct.
Ho: Non exposure to HIV / AIDS will tend to encourage youth to sexual promiscuity.
3. H3: youth who are single will expose themselves to HIV/AIDS more than those youths who are married.
H0: youth who are single will not expose themselves to HIV/ AIDS more than those youths who are married.
4. H4: The campaign is helping in decreasing the number of AIDS victims in Enugu
H0: The absence of the compaign will bring about increase in the number of AIDS victims in Enugu
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
MASS MEDIA :- This concern with all organ of communication concerns with the disseminator of information about the HIV/AID. These include the print media (Newspaper magazine ) and electronic media (Radio and television)
COMPAIGN :- This can be defined as a serve or organized actions in support of a cause in the area of our study it can be defined as an organized action taken towards eliminating HIV/AIDS in our society. It can come in form of rally workshop seminar advert and also in a dramatically from aiming towards educating people on ills of HIV /AIDS.
HIV: The human immune virus it is the virus that goes with AIDS when one is infected with the HIV the nest thing is AIDS itself. It can stay for a long time on the body before manifesting to a full blown AIDS.
AIDS:- A –Acquired mean the diseases is an infection one that infect through contact with an infected person. It is not hereditary in nature.
I – immune – The bodies defence system which prefects us from disease.
D – Deficiency: This means not working normal when it affects the immune system it stop it from fighting against disease
S – syndrome:- A group of symptoms which when they occur together you know that the immune system is week. And the person involved has a particular disease or condition
MENACE: – A threat on something or to cause injury or damage on something. AID menace means a great threat on the people which may do much more harm on the people.
METROPOLIES This means that the study is base on the capital city of Enugu or main town in Enugu
1.8 ASSUMPTIONS It is assumed that the respondent not only have assess the mass media (Newspaper magazine television and Radio ) for information but at the same time are exposed to HIV / AIDS news commentaries, Advertisements and jungles it is also assumed that the respondent to the questions are informed sufficiently to understand the question. In this regard therefore effort should be made to frame question as simple as possible and straight to the point.Hiv/Aids
Finally it is assumed that the respondent are of age understand what sex entails.