Antibacterial Activity Of Sweet Orange (Citrus Sinensis) On Staphylococcus Aureus And Escherichia Coli Isolated From Wound Infected

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ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SWEET ORANGE (CITRUS SINENSIS) ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM WOUND INFECTED

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of content
List of table

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SWEET ORANGE (CITRUS SINENSIS) ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM WOUND INFECTED

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SWEET ORANGE (CITRUS SINENSIS) ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM WOUND INFECTED

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIAL AND METHODS ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SWEET ORANGE (CITRUS SINENSIS) ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM WOUND INFECTED
– sterilization
– procurement of sweet oranges
– extraction of orange juice
– preparation of ourture media
– plating technique (streak method) for the isolation of bacterial organisms.
– Microbial containing and microscopic work
– Biochemical tests for identification of bacteria’s isolates
– Preparation of disc or sensitivity testing o the orange extract.
– Sensitivity disc testing using sweet orange extract on isolated organisms.
– Antibiotic sensitivity disc testing on isolated bacterial organisms.

CHAPTER OUR
4.0 RESULT ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SWEET ORANGE (CITRUS SINENSIS) ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM WOUND INFECTED

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 DISCUSSION ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SWEET ORANGE (CITRUS SINENSIS) ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM WOUND INFECTED

CHAPTER SIX
6.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SWEET ORANGE (CITRUS SINENSIS) ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM WOUND INFECTED
Reference
Appendix

DISCUSION,CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

DISCUSSION
The antibacterial activity of sweet orange (citrus sinensis) on Escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound infections was studied. One hundred wound infections were sampled within age range 5-80 years. The highest isolation of bacterial organisms was obtianed in staphylococcus aureus as 100 (32%) followed by Escherichia coli as 92 (29%). There were isolation of other organisms, Klebsiella species was 76 (24%), followed by pseudomonas 44(14%). In the present work, the highest isolation of both S. aureus and E.coli was within the age range 5-10 years. This might be due to their level of personal hygiene and exposure of these children to an unhygienic environment. This view was agreed by Dehat (1990) who said that wound infection was found more especially among children of 3-8 years. Also in the present work, the rate of ineffectively was lowest within the age range 21-25 years. This reduction might be due to their awareness to take care of their wounds, their level of personal hygiene and their awareness to the dangers of poor sanitary environment as well as their ability to avoid dangers and dirty spots.

This study also revealed that most of S. aureus and E.coli isolated were sensitive to the orange extract. This is in agreement with the view of Uddoh (1998) who states that vitamin c increases interferon levels and antibiotics responses and has antiviral and antibacterial activity. The average zones of inhibition of orange extract on S aureus was 1.8mm while on E.coli was 1.9mm. the results also showed that out of 100 persons with S. aureus, 75 were sensitive to orange extract. While out of 92 persons with E.coli, 79 were sensitive to the orange extract. Whereas the antibiotic sensitivity table showed that most S.aureus and E coli isoalted were susceptible to the drugs used while some were resistant. It had shown that out of 100 persons with S. auareus, 93 were sensitive to Drovid, 76 to Erythromycin, 67 o ampicillin and 87 to ciprofloxacin while out of 92 persons with E.coli, 87 were sensitive to Drovid, 82 to erythromycin, 72 to ampicilin and 83 to ciprofloracin. The average zones of inhibition exhibisted by these drugs on S S aureus were 8.95mm for Drovid, 6.7 4mm for erythromycin, 4 . 15mm for ampicillin and 7.47mm for ciproflovacin while on E.coli, the average zones of inhibition were 8.63mm for Drovid, 6.67mm for erythromycin, 4.47mm for ampicilliun and 6.57mm for ciprofloxacin.

The present work revealed that invitro (outside the body), orange antibacterial activity on S aureus and E.coli isolated from wound infection was minimal. However, Oskaka et al (2002) states that in invivo (inside the body), vitamin C in orange extract stimulates the formation of collagen i.e. the fibrous connective tissue that is so important in the repair and healing of wounds. It also increases the interferon levels and antibody responses, thereby boosting the immunity of the body in order to fight foreign bodies. They further state that disorders such as bed sores had responded well to treatment with such high doses (1,000mg a day) consumption of vitamin C. And also that patients with inflammation of bowel who development open draining wounds are found to have very low levels of vitamin C in the blood.

They also maintain that anability to heal wounds is one of the ear-marks of classical scurvy. This view is shared by Ruldoph et al (1978) who explain that sweet orange is rich in vitamin C, which is the key property that boost its medical potency. Also encyclopaedia Americana 9072) states that the vitamin C in orange is found extremely powerful in preventing scurvy, because it is the active ingredient in orange. The book continues to highlight that orange has been advocated as both prophylaxis and treatment for scurvy and infection referred to classical scurvy as early as 1616. Moreover, Uddoh (1988) is in agreement of the above view, by stating that in immunity, vitamin C boosts immunity by increasing the production of B and T cells and other white blood cells, including those that destroy microorganisms.

He continues to state that it increases interferon levels and anatibody responses and has antiviral and anti bacterial effects, which lead to improved resistance against infections. Further more, Prescott et al (2005) state that vitamin c assists the immune system in two of its primary functions to rid the body of foreign invaders and to monitor the systems for any sign of tumor cell. They further state that vitamin C acts as intermediary which facilitates elections transfer and when there is disorders in the body, this flow is in someway blocked. And that an agent like vitamin c which floods the cellular fluids, promoting the flow of electrons, fluids promoting the flow of electrons, might indeed, prove to promote a smoother and more healthier progression of biochemical processes.

The sensitivity patterns of both orange extract and antibiotics of the isolated test organisms were resistant to both orange extract and anatibiotics used. This might be due to ability of the bacteria to pump the antibacterial material out of the cell. This is in agreement with the view of prescott et al (2005) who states that one of the resistant strategy exhibited by some bacteria is to pump the drug out of the cell. Some pathogens have plasma membrane translocases, often called efflux pumps, that expel drugs. They further highlight that such systems are present in E coli, S aureus pseudomonas and mycobacterium smegmatis.

CONCLUSION

The results of this study reveal staphylococcus aureus as the most predominant bacterial organism in wound infection, followed by Escherichia coli. The separate zones of inhibition of orange extract on both organisms were minimal ad the sensitivity pattern showed that most were sensitive while some (very small number) were resistance. Though the effect of the orange extract on bacterial organisms is minimal outside the body, its active ingredient vitamin c is found to boost immune system invivo (inside the body), by increasing the production of B and T cells and other white blood cells, including those that destroy micro organisms.
And since vitamin c is found to boost the immune system and promotes healing of wounds, fractures and bruises, its intake aas food supplement will go a long way in preventing wound infections.

RECOMMENDATION

a. Wounds should be treated
b. Good personal hygiene and good sanitary environment should be adopted.
c. Dangers and risk should be avoided because they can lead to wound
d. Natural fruits especially orange should be taken because it boost the immune system in fighting against bacteria and viruses.

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