EXPLORING THE DETERMINANTS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP SPIRIT AMONG UNDERGRADUATE IN NIGERIA
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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
In Nigeria today the rate of joblessness is on the increase; because of lack of provision of jobs by the federal government of Nigeria. Entrepreneurship programmes have really tried recently to encourage undergraduate to cultivate the spirit of entrepreneurship while still in school.
The essence of the introduction of the entrepreneurship programmes in most tertiary institutions is to give the undergraduate the necessary knowledge background of the importance of being an entrepreneur.
According to (baudear, 1910); he defined entrepreneurship as an innovative management. Cantillion (1965) described it as self-employment accompanied with uncertainty in returns; Kao (1993) extended the definition to include the process of wealth and value creation. There are so many definition as regard the research topic; according to Schumpeter (1934) he considered the entrepreneur to be an innovator who carried out new combinations; say (1964) and Knight, (1921) were of the view that he was an extraordinary manager with Say considering him a highly talented manager and Knight described him as a managerial risk-taker.
Marshal (1964) drew a distinction between an entrepreneur and a manager. In more recent times Drucker (1985) called him an opportunity maximizer. Recent literature on the entrepreneur can be grouped into the descriptive and the prescriptive approaches, the traits model and the social development model. Under the descriptive approach, an entrepreneur is defined by describing the characteristics or attributes that he possess. Some of the attributes in the literature include the internal locus of control Rotter (1966), a high need for achievement McClelland (1961); Brockhaus, (1980), Clayton (1981) and possession of vision and a sense of mission (Silver, 1986, 1988). Flexibility, imagination and a willingness to take risks were added to the growing list of attribute by Stevenson and Gumpert (1985) form their study. A total of eleven common characteristics were identified in independent studies by Baumback (1981), Welsh and Young (1984), and Welsh and White (1983): namely: good health, realism, superior conceptual ability, self confidence, a need to control or direct (internal locus of control), attraction to challenges, sufficient emotional stability, self – control, initiative, balance and control and enterprises (self –reliant attitude supported by confidence in one’s ability to take risks). Sexton and Bowman (1985) study showed the entrepreneur to be tolerant of ambiguity, preferring autonomy, aloof, enjoying risk – taking, resists conformity and readily adapting to changes. Another recent study found entrepreneurs starting larger firms tend to have more education, more management experience and objectives that were more entrepreneurial in nature ( cooper, A. C. et al, 1989). Yee (1992) study supported the risk- taking attitude first presented by earlier studies an entrepreneur is an incubator of novel ideas who is distinguished from the run- of-mill small business sense, innovativeness and the willingness to take risks.
The prescriptive approach sought to prescribe what an entrepreneur should be, and not the characteristics of an entrepreneur, Jean Baptize Say (1762 – 1832), for example prescribed that an entrepreneur must have judgment, perseverance and a knowledge of the world as well as of business.; and must possess the art of superintendence and administration. Richard Cantillon suggested that an entrepreneur needs to have the foresight and willingness to assume risks and take the necessary action to seize profitable opportunities in the market place. Moussair (1988) stated in his (unpublished) Ph.D. thesis that an entrepreneur must have the ability to communicate effectively. Duncan emphasized the need for an entrepreneur should also have the relevant skills for identifying a market niche and developing a venture for that niche as a key ingredient for business success ( Duncan, 1991). Chan and Sobey (1993) stated that a person must have the ability to perceive and evaluate opportunities in a global perspective to be effective as an entrepreneur in the 21st Century. The traits model sought to identify a single personality trait or constellation of traits capable of successfully predicting entrepreneurial behaviour patterns. The best known trait is the “ Need Achievement” (nAch) associated with McClelland (1961). Another single trait approach is one which attempts to measure ‘locus of control or the extent to which people believe that they control their own destinies.
Gibb and Ritchie (1981) argued that the traditional view, that entrepreneurs were born and not made, largely ignored environmental influences. They proposed a social development model, suggesting that “entrepreneurship can be fully understood in terms of the types of situation encountered and the social groups to which individuals relate.” A fourfold typology (the Improvisers, the Revisionists, the Superceders and the Reverters) spanning the life cycle and suggesting certain key influences at each stage was proposed. It has been argued by some psychologists, notably Sheehy (1976), that there are particular turning points throughout the course of the life cycle, where individuals work through personal transitions in order to satisfy and reconcile their own changed goals, needs and ambitions with the opportunities, circumstances and situations which they currently find themselves in. Despite some early acceptance, recent criticisms have been cast on the validity of both approaches. There have been subjectivity and lack of consistency with regard to measurement of the traits. Training designed to raise levels of nAch has been said to influence only surface behaviour and usually results in temporary effects. The social development model has been criticized as being an entirely situational model, which loses sight of the individual. Further, it dose not explain more than the “traditional” view that it was critical of and is equally guilty of not being able to predict who is likely to succeed as an entrepreneur.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Over the past decades, due to constant internal and external pressures of low capacity production, massive unemployment and poverty , collapsed infrastructural facilities, poor governance structure, massive corruption, insecurity of life and property, political instability and poor macroeconomic management. The economy seems to have lost its focus and thus is yearning for quick intervention. The oil boom has destroyed and distorted our attitude to work (resource course) and this has affected the psychological quotient of an average Nigerian who prefers to avoid investments that require special expertise and innovation. Inaddition, the school curriculum is largely not geared towards equipping students with skills required for self-employment. Consequently, thousands of graduates from our tertiary institutions are roaming the streets in search of jobs that are non -existent. Nigeria is blessed with abundant human and natural resources which if properly harnessed would have turned this country into a developed economy. But given the massive corruption, lack of commitment, the dominant role of the public sector in the economic life of the nation, the country has lost opportunities for growth and sustainable development.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. What are the problem facing the devolpment of entrepreneurship in Nigeria?
2. Does the school have any significant effect on students participation in the entrepreneurship programme?
3. What are the plans of the entrepreneural intention towards the Nigerian undergraduates?
4. Does the tertiary institution encourge their students to become self employed?
5. what is the role of entrepreneurship programme on the attitudes of Nigerian undergraduates towards becoming self employed?
6. Is there any need for entrepreneurship programme in Nigeria?
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ho: there is no significant relationship between attitude and entrepreneurial intention.
H1: there is a significant relationship between attitude and entrepreneurial intention.
Ho: there is no significant relationship between tertiary institution encouragement and entrepreneurial intention.
H1: there is a significant relationship between tertiary institution encouragement and entrepreneurial intention.
Ho: there is no significant relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention
H1: there is a significant relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention
1.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The aims of the research work is to determine:
1. The problem facing the devolpment of entrepreneurship in Nigeria.
2. if the school have any significant effect on students participation in the entrepreneurship programme.
3. The plans of the entrepreneural intention towards the Nigerian undergraduates.
4. If the tertiary institution encourge their students to become self employed.
5. The role of entrepreneurship programme on the attitudes of Nigerian undergraduates towards becoming self employed.
6. The need for entrepreneurship programme in Nigeria
1.6 SIGINIFICANCE OF STUDY
The research work is an important one as it will discuss the effect of schools on students participation in the entrepreneurship programme, the study will aslo reveal the factor affecting entrepreneurship development in Nigeria. finally the study will discuss the role played by education and teaching variables in the development of perceptions about the desirability and feasibility of entrepreneurial behaviour.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The research work focus the role of the schools, entrepreneurship programmes in exploring the determinants of entrepreneurship spirit among undergraduates inNigeria.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS: The researcher was not with sufficient funds; which made him or her not to be able to visit most of the schools in Nigeria and also not to be able to buy all the necessary materials but he or she was able to get meaningful information concerning the reseach topic.
TIME CONSTRAINTS: The research being a student was left with limited time beause of his or her involvement in other depoartmental activities; like presentation of seminars, and other departmental assignment but the researcher was able to meet up with the time allocated for the completion of the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ENTREPRENEUR: an entrepreneur is a person who creates a new business in the face of risk and uncertainty for the purpose of achieving profits and growth by identifying opportunities and assembling the necessary resources to capitalize on them Zimmerer and Scarborough (2002).
ENTREPRENEURSHIP SPIRIT: is a kind of gift that inspires and motivate someone without any other external factors others to become the best they can be. From passion and positivity to leadership and ambition, here are theentrepreneurs that best define the entrepreneurial spirit.