MOTIVATION AS A MANAGEMENT TOOLS FOR INCREASING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF WORKERS (A CASE STUDY OF ENTRACO LIMITED ENUGU)
This research project is a vary crucial study for the ENTRACO COMPANY PLC. The study was to know the motivational tool employed by the management of Entrac to increase the productivity of its workers. The research instruments used in collecting the data were respondents, which comprised of sex, marital status and salary grade distribution of the company.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 GENERAL BACKGROUND OF SUBJECT MATTER
1.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER
1.3 PROBLEMS THE STUDY WILL BE CONCERNED WITH
1.4 THE IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
1.5 DEFINITIONS OF IMPORTANT TERMS
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 THE ORIGIN OF THE SUBJECT AREA
2.2 THE SCHOOL OF THOUGHT WITHIN THE SUBJECT AREA
2.3 THE SCHOOL OF THOUGHT RELEVANT TO THE PROBLEMS
2.4 DIFFERENT METHOD OF STUDYING THE PROBLEMS
3.1 DATA PRESENTATION
3.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA
3.1 GENERAL BACKGROUND OF SUBJECT MATTER
Over some years ago psychologists, managers and students of management have given increased attention to the need for human motivation at the working place. They found this concept useful to both explaining human behaviour, particularly in work situation to increase the productivity of workers.
The purpose of all types of organizaitoin are continually faced with the problem of vast diffences that exist in the performance or output of individual workers. Some employees often perform at a high level and need little or no supervisions and appear to enjoy what they are doing, other employees perform only at marginal levels and required constant attention and directions and are often absent from their duty posts. He reason for these differences in performance the nature of the job, the behaviour of the manager and the characteristics of the worker. The big questions is, how can the manager maintain the high performance of the first group and also increase that of those producing marginally, when it comes to being highly productive on the job, to performing with little or no direction and to being a real contributor to the organization. What can one usually say is the cause? Does money count first is the desire to draw bigger pay pocket? I s threat the principle factor? Or is it the sheer enjoyment of being part of a busy co-operative – professional team that makes some employees perform high?
It has been recently shown that this variation is caused by the motives of workers, whether the employees or managers are high or how in achievement motivation makes a real difference in the effectiveness of financial incentives.
Several studies have shown that offering additional financial reward for doing a task does not make strongly – achievement – oriented person to work harder or better. A group of aggressive – achievement – minded salesmen would certainly be angry of their extra efforts were not recognized with much greater financial rewards. Yet offering them bonus is not what produced the extra effort. This may seem like a psychological distinctions without a difference but the interpretation of he meaning of bonus plan genuinely affects performance.
People with relatively low achievement motivation, ion the other hand, will work harder for increased financial rewards. However, does the money got by doing it interest them primarily as a measure of accomplishment? Rather, it has other values for them.
This work therefore will attempt to probe into the motivational tools employed by the management of Enugu State transport company limited to motivate its employees. The findings will help to evaluate the problems and prospects of the organization in the area of motivation and suggest way for improvement.
Enugu State transport Company Limited is big company and also a strategic one company and also a strategic one because of the place of transportation in any economy.
The government invested a huge amount of money to set up ENTRACO and therefore, expects returns from the investment. this is why it is profit-oriented organization.
It is only through the effective performance of the employees that returns from investment can be achieved. This is why it is necessary to know how they are being motivated to work and achieve their organizations objectives.
3.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ORGANIZATION
Enugu State Transport Company Limited (ENTRACO) come into existence to alleviate the transport problem facing the people of the state. The Anambra State Government attempt to tackle the situation and gave birth to the company of Anambra State (TRACAS) launched in 1988. This was with the intention to provided cheap, reliable and efficient transport services to the people. But with the state creation exercise by the then head the Enugu State come into existence.
The assets and liabilities of TRACAS were then shared between he two state (Anambra and Enugu and with it, came the birth of Enugu State Transport Company Limited on the 10th of October, 1991.
In October, 1996, more states were created under the Head of State, Gen. Sani Abacha. Ebonyi State was created out of Enugu State which led to the sharing of ENTACO’S Assets again between Ebonyi Enugu State.
After that, ENTRACO inherited 17 operational buses. As at 1997 ENTRACO’S Staff strength fell to 120. The same year 1997 ENTERACO made a loss of eleven million naira. Right now, ENTRACO does not have more than 10 (Ten) cars – bath luxurious buses and small car. Infact the Enugu State Government has made serious plans for the company to go back to its former position.
ENTRAC Now has few depots located in different town of Enugu, Anambra and other states of the federation with its head quarts located along Enugu – Abakaliki Express road, Emene Enugu. Its major routes are
Enugu to Abuja
Enugu to Port Harcourt
Enugu to Abakaliki
Enugu to Udi / Oji River and
Enugu to Nsukka
3.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
In a work place individual employees have different aims and aspirations, for instance, some would prefer to work very hard and yet be satisfied at least for working hard; some employees aims might be just to contribute to the job, others mighty have aims of showing appearance the office and would not like to be usefully engaged; still some would prefer working for short period hence their aim would b to reduced the time they spend in the work place to a minimum level.
When duties and authorities of jobs and office are carefully described, then it would appear that accountability could be determined easily.
In great cases, this is true. However, in an organization, responsibility often can be avoided very easily by using bureaucratic techniques originally designed to produce efficiency. Similarly, when a departmental conflict creates the need for co-ordinating decision, a non-responsible member / worker can avoid responsibility by basing a decision on the existing power structure, using history as the justification.
3.4 THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDY
This exercise is an investigative research work specifically directed toward finding out how manager’s motivate their workers. We are using the Enugu State transport company “ENTRANCO” as our case study
This research therefore limits itself to only investigating into the motivational tools a company uses in the management of it’s human resources. Some of the ways in which they motivate their workers include.
i) WAGES AND SALARIES:
Employees consider wages as the most important way of motivating workers. It can provide a source of motivation for employees to work effectively.
ii) TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
The importance of staff development in any organization cannot be over emphasized. A training scheme teaches the relevance of jobs and motivation and the necessary skill to apply for effective productions or services.
This is the advancement to a higher rank. A high level of job demand a lot of responsibilities and it may tasking on the individual.
Other ways which are also important includes: job security, job enlargement, appraisal, fringe benefit, insurance etc.
3.5 DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS
There are some unique and difficult words used in this project, however, they are carefully explained for easy understanding of their meaning and the context in which they are applied.
This is simply act of ensuring appropriate behaviour of worker in an organization by providing an environment in which people can safely their human needs through both their work and work environment.
Motivations can inform of promotion, bonus, performance appraisal, salary increment, provision of fringe benefits etc.
HUCZYNSKI AND BUCHANAM (1985) Defined motivation as “a decision –making process through which the individual chooses desired out comes and set sin motion the behaviour appropriate to acquiring them.
This is the co-orindation of human and material resources in an organization to achieve management goals.
UMOH (1996) defined management as a process by which people through systematic co-operative human effort. It is also the process of getting things done by using other people to achieve a set of objectives.
This simple mean any items or article used to achieve an objective in an organization.
It is also an instrument or measure employed by management to achieve set objectives in an organization.
Tools also means, the existence of infrastructural support. These things and more should be made available in the working place so that productivity could be increased.