The Contributions Of Shaykh Abbas Zakariyya Al-Qārī To Qur‟An Recitation In Ibadanland

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THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF SHAYKH ABBAS ZAKARIYYA AL-QĀRĪ TO QUR‟AN RECITATION IN IBADANLAND

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the study

1.2 Statement to the problem

1.3 Objective of the study

1.4 Significance of the study

1.5 Scope and limitation

1.6 Research methodology

Endnote

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Evolution of  Qur‟ān  recitation in Ibadan

2.1  Qur‟ān  reciters in Ibadan land

2.2 Some  Qur‟ān  memorisation centers in Ibadan land

Endnote

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Biography of  Abbas Zakariyyah

3.0.1 His names and parental lineage

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3.0.2 His birth and childhood

3.0.3 His education

3.0.4 His marital status

3.0.5 Notable among his students

3.1 His impact on  Qur‟ān  recitation in Ibadan

3.2 His discoveries in the field of tajwid

3.3 His  Qur‟ān  institute

3.4 His role models

3.5 His intellectual contributions

Endnotes

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Summary and conclusion

4.1 Recommendation

4.2 Referene

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

1.1    Background to the Study

              In every religion there is a scripture which is considered its canon of law. People of the past also had

theirs; Tawrāh,  Injīl(  the  Bible),  Zabūr  (the  Psalm) and  the Qur‟ān were revealed to Mūsā

(Moses),„Īsā(Jesus),Dāwūd(David)and  Muhammad respectively. The  last  revealed  scripture,  which  is  the

Noble Qur‟ān,  occupies  a  very  important position  in  the  life  of  Muslims.  It  is  the  word  of  Almighty  Allah

revealed to Prophet Muhammad through Angel Jibrīl. Its recitation serves as an act of worship. Recitation of

the  Holy  Qur‟ān  is  highly rewardable  in  Islam  as it  attracts  many  rewards.  It  was reported  that  the  Prpohet

Muhammad said:

                “Whoever  recites  a  letter  from  the  Book  of  Allah  will

have a reward and that reward will be multiplied by ten.

I  am  not  saying  that Alif Lām  Mῑm is  a  letter,  rather  I

am saying Alif is  a letter, Lām is a letter and Mῑm is a

letter”.1

Furthermore, there has been a thirst for such great reward among the Muslims of the past till the time

of the contemporary Muslims.  The virtue gained in recitation of the Qur‟ān encourages the Muslims towards

learning  and  teaching  recitation  of  the Qur‟ān.  This attitude  also  serves  as  part  of  the  features  of  the  best

among the ummah. This is in consonance with the sayings of Prophet Muhammad who was reported to have

said:

“The  best  amongst  you is  the  one  who

learns the Qur‟ān  and teaches it”.2

The  Prophet  of  Islam  was  himself  a  reciter  of  the Qur‟ān;  he  was  taught  by Angel Jibrῑl and  his

companions also learned it from him. Thus, there were many reciters among the companions such as Ubayy bn

Ka῾b, Zayd  bn  Thābit,  Abdullah  bn  Mas῾ūd  among  others. It is  documented  in  the  books  of  Hadῑth  that  the

Prophet  once  asked  one  of  his  companions (Ibn  Mas῾ūd)  to  recite  the Qur‟ān for  him  and  that  when the

companion reached verse 41 of chapter 4, the Prophet burst into tears.3

During  the  time  of  the  first  caliph,  Abūbakr,  the Qur‟ān was  compiled  after  the  loss  of  eminent

reciters among the companions in the battle of Yamāmah.4 It was done in order to safeguard the Qur‟ān from

alteration so also to enhance the recitation of the Qur‟ān. The trend of Qur‟ān recitation continued after the era

of  the  companions  till  date.  Also, Qur‟ān recitation  later  became  a  field  where  scholars  have had  various

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contributions. It was an attempt to correct the wrong recitation of the Qur‟ān among people. This happened as

a result  of  wide  range  of  the  non-Arabs  entering  into  the  fold  of  Islam.  In  order  to  correct  errors  in  the

recitation of the Qur‟ān, scholars started writing books on the science of Tajwīd.

Historically,  writing  in  the  science  of  Tajwīd  started  in  the  2nd  century.  Although  it  was  not  until  the 4th

century of Hijrah that Tajwīd started as a separate science on its own.  As a matter of fact, it started with Abu

Muzāḥim  Al-Khāqānī 320  A.H whose  name  is  Mūsā bn  „Ubaydullāh  bn  Yaḥyā bn  Khāqān5.  Abū Muzāḥim

wrote some metres of poem emphasizing the importance of Tajwīd in the recitation of the Qur‟ān.

He says:

ركذلل سردلا نمدأ لات ةولات # تنيز ةحاصفلا نأ يخأ ملعا لاأ

ردصلا ىذأ هنع نامدلإاب بهذأو # هناسل قرأ يلاتلا لات ام اذإ

يرجي اذإ هيف نحللاب ةفرعمو # هظفح ناقتإ ركذلا ملع لوأف

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رذع نم نحللا فرعي لا  امو # هليزت اميك هيف نحللاب افراع نكفيذلل

Translation:

(1)  O my  brother be aware that  eloquence (i.e  Tajwid)  beautifies  the  recitation  of  every  reciter  who

gets addicted to frequent recitation.

(2) When  a  reciter  recites,  he  awakens  his  tongue  and  wipes  away  the  problem  of  the  heart  with  its

addiction.

(3) The first thing to learn is perfection of its memorization and identifying errors when they occur.

(4) Be acquainted with errors of recitation in order to avoid them, for there is no excuse for an ignorant.

Among those who followed the legacy of Abu Muzāḥim was Muhammad bn Muhammad Al-jazarī

(d833 AH) who managed to bring forth great contributions which none of his predecessors were able to do.7

His Matnul-Jazariyyah is among his famous works on Tajwīd.

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In  Nigeria,  the  Northerners  are  the  pioneers  in the  field  of  Islamic  knowledge  especially  Qur‟ān

recitation. The science of Qur‟ān recitation then came from there to the southern part of the country. It should

be  noted that  in  Ibadaland,  there  are  notable  scholars  who  have immensely  contributed  to  Qur‟ān recitation.

Amongst those scholars is Shaykh Abbas Zakariyya Al-qārī.

1.2  Statement of the Problem

Many works have been written on Qur‟ān recitation in Yorubaland in general and in Ibadanland in

particular.  Those  works  contain  eminent personalities  who  have  left  indelible  marks  on  Qur‟an  recitation  in

Ibadanland. It is obviously incomplete to mention personalities in the field of Qur‟an recitation in Ibadanland

without the name Abbas Zakariyya Al-Qārī‟. This is not far-fetched as the man has contributed a lot to the field

Qur‟ān recitation.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

This  study  is aimed  at  examining  the  roles  that Shaykh Abbas Zakariyya  Al-Qārī plays  in  the

development of Qur‟ān recitation in Ibadan. This is in order to:

· explore the roles he plays in the development of Qur‟ān recitation in  Ibadanland. Other specific objectives

are to:

· explore some of his discoveries in the science of Tajwīd.

· know more about some of his intellectual contributions to the field.

· document  the  contributions  of some  of  his  students  who  have  excelled  in  the  society  both  national  and

international levels.

1.4 Significance of the study

                     As the topic indicates the contributions of Shaykh Abbas Zakariyya Al-Qārī to Qur‟an recitation

in Ibadanland, it would be of great use to those who are in research of Qur‟ān recitation in Ibadan and potential

Qur‟ān reciters.

1.5 Scope and Limitation

                    This  work is  limited  to  examining the  contributions  of Abbas Zakariyya  Al-Qārī  to  Qur‟ān

recitation in Ibadanland.

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1.6 Research methodology

                    This work will adopt the use of texts, magazines, personal interviews, published and unpublished

materials related to this study. Also, internet materials will be used.

 Endnotes

1. Nawawi, Riyadus-Salihin, hadith no.999, pg180, Darul-Fikr Publication.

  1. Nawawi, Riyadus-Salihin, hadith no.993, pg180, Darul-Fikr Publication.

  2. Nawawi, Riyadus-Salihin, hadith no.1008, pg181, Darul-Fikr Publication.

  3. Abu Ameenah,B.P, “Usool at-Tafseer”,(Ibadan, Alwaseelat Publishers, 1997), pg150-153.

  4.  Retreived  from http://www.tajweedportal.weebly.com/history.html,“  History  of  Tajweed”  Retreived  on

14/May/2015.

  1. Zakariyya, A.” Istidrākāt „alal-ahkām at-Tajwīdiyyah, ”,(Ibadan, Daylight Publishers, 20130), pg26.

  2.  Zakariyya, A.” Istidrākāt „alal-ahkām at-Tajwīdiyyah”,(Ibadan, Daylight Publishers, 20130), pg28.

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