This Research Work is on
Impact Of Information And Communication Technology (ICT) On Radio News Reporting (A Study Of Atlantic FM Uyo)
1.1 Background of the Study
Broadcasting has been at the forefront of many technological changes, mostly in digitalization and enhancement of existing technology. For example, digital technology now permits listeners to obtain traffic information and news per se, while listening to a cassette, compact disc or radio station etc. (Church Akpan 2006).
We are all living in a changing world, and over the past many ears we have been conditioned to accept changes in the way we think and relate. Thus, communication between the peoples of the world which sounded utopist before is now becoming a reality in or very eyes giving practical meaning to Marshall Mollohan’sviewofthe world ad a global village interlinked by communication technologies, (Mc Lucan, 1964. P47)
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are electronic machines and devices. Their application have both computing and communication capabilities. They range from physical devices like digital cameras, tape recorders, computers, sensing devices, scanners, mobile phone, etc to cyber space-the internet, software, teleconferencing, satellite etc. Their application is broad and cuts across all interpersonal and mass communication media, giving more power, robustness and veracity to their operations and performance. More thane ninety years after the world’s first radio is still broadcasting the most persuasive, st accessible, affordable and flexible mass medium available in cities, urban towns and rural areas.
It is often the only mass medium available to majority of the people.
The application of information and communication technologies into broadcasting especially radio broadcasting is therefore designed to boost and enhance qualities of broadcast programmes. Most importantly has been the digitization of radio signal, innovation programming and live reporting from any corner of the world.
It is also believed that the business of radio broadcasting has been elevated with information and communication technologies application. This informs why this project is undertaken with a view of finding out what information and communication technologies have on broadcasting, taking the Atlantic FM, Uyo, as a reference point.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Most researches on radio reporting have their focus on coverage of particular events of general interest and critique of programmes. This is so because it permits a close scrutiny of the output of radio stations. Today, with the addition of the profit making bias to the business of radio broadcasting, news and other programmes are seen as products which have to be packaged well. Atlantic FM, Uyo, is a newly established radio station in Akwa-ibom State. However, it is certain that it applies information and communication technologies in broadcasting functions. Thus, this research seeks to find out the Impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) on Radio News Reporting.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The objectives of this study are:
- To find out if Information and Communication Technologies are used by Atlantic FM, Uyo in it broadcast reporting.
To find the extent ICT is been applied in broadcast reporting in Atlantic FM, Uyo.
To find out impact of Information and Communication Technologies on the output of broadcast reporting in Atlantic FM Radio, Uyo.
To make recommendations on the use of ICT on news report.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated;
- What is the extent of the application of Information and Communication Technologies in broadcast reporting of Atlantic FM, Uyo?
Does Atlantic FM, Uyo, make use of these modern Information and Communication Technologies in broadcast reporting?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following research hypothesis will be relevant to this study
H1: Atlantic FM, Uyo, makes use of ICT in radio new broadcasting.
H0: Atlantic FM, Uyo, does not make use of modern ICT in radio new reporting.
H2: ICT application will improve the output of radio news reporting in Atlantic FM Uyo.
H0: ICT application will not improve the output of broadcast reporting in Atlantic FM, Uyo.
1.6 Scope of Study
This study is restricted to only the radio services-The Atlantic FM, Uyo. The findings and its results can only be used to determine the impact created in other radio stations where information and communication technologies are employed in broadcasting of programs.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The findings as a result of this stud are expected to provide information that would help radio broadcasting improve with the use of ICTs as well as provide insight to Atlantic FMs management. it will also help the team make necessary amends in the positive direction where they are found to be lacking behind and equally provide model for researchers and institutions of higher learning which will serve as reference point.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The definitions of terms were operationally defined
Communication: This is the process of transmitting information, ideas and attitudes from one person to another.
Broadcast Reporting: This is the journalistic act of sourcing, covering, working, editing and presenting news on the radio.
FM (Frequency Modulation): It is the type of radio broadcast service in which the frequency varies in a manner corresponding to the sound of the voice/music transmitted which is one hundred and eight six thousand miles per second. It was found in the 1930s by Edwin Armstrong and is allocated in the very high frequency (VHF) –the part of the radio spectrum from thirty to three hundred megahertz.
Radio: It is a telecommunication system by modulation and radiation of electromagnetic waves.
ICTs: Information and Communication Technologies this is a set of technologies used in accomplishing modern radio communication without face-to-face meeting.
In recent years, there has been a growing awareness in the developing nations, to give explicit attention to the application of modern information and communication technologies application. This also serves as a foundation on which the theoretical frame work for the study is based.
This term, communication, can be defined as the process of transmitting information, ideas, norms, values, attitudes from one person to another. It deals with the technology of transmission of information, as in the private word or computer, between people or machines. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signal, may take linguistic or unliguistic forms and may occur through spoken or other modes. (National Joint Committee for Communicative Needs of persons with severe Disabilities, 1992, p.2).
2.2.2 Broadcast reporting
Broadcast Reporting is the field of news and journals which are broadcast, that is, published by electrical methods, instead of the older methods, such as private newspapers and posters. Broadcast methods include radio (Via air, cable and internet). And especially recently, the internet generally such medias disperse pictures (static and moving), visual text and/or sounds. Broadcast reporting also involved to be written differently from text to be read by the public.
2.2.3 FM (Frequency Modulation)
Frequency Modulation (FM) is a method of impressing data onto an alternating-current (AC) wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave. This scheme by be used by both analog and digital data. In analog, FM, the frequency of the AC signal wave also called the carrier varies in a continuous manner while in digital FM, the carrier frequency shifts abruptly rather than continuously leaving the number of possible carrier frequency states toe power of two (2) as compared to the analogue whose frequency carriers are infinite.
A radio is communication over distance where sounds are converted to electromagnetic wave and sent to a receiver that transfers the waves back to sounds. It can also be defined as the transmission and reception of electromagnetic wave of radio frequency, especially those carrying sound messages.
2.2.5 ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies)
These are technologies (sets) used in accomplishing modern radio communication. ICT refers also to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications. Although similar to Information Technology but focuses primarily on communication Technologies which includes internet, wireless mediums. For example people can communicate in real time with others in different countries using technologies such as instant messaging, voice over IP (VOIP), video-conferencing, social networking websites like facebook allows users from all over the world remain in contact and communicate on a regular basis.
2.3 Review of Related Studies
The two works reviewed are:
- Technological Determinism theory and media practitioners perception of cultural impact of Information and Communication Technologies on developing nations by Levi Nwodu(2004)
Information and Communication Technologies for sustainable livelihood by http//egov.gor. sglegont actionplanning.htm(website).
The first work to be reviewed is journals by Levi Nwodu, 2004, published in the Nigeria Journal of Communication. The work was on Technology Determinism theory and media practitioners perception of cultural impact of Information and Communication Technologies on Developing this work Nation” which used Enugu based journalists as its population and sample subject examined the level of awareness of the existence of Information and Communication Technologies, the rate which people are exposed to Information and Communication Technologies and its impact on their local cultural values. The research method used was case study. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection in the work and the sampling techniques used was purposive sampling because after the questionnaire as the principal data collection instrument, key officers from the forum of the Enugu-based journalists were selected for interview. The findings of the study sowed that Information and Communication Technologies had a negative impact on the cultural values of developing nation.
Finding also showed that limited access to and lack of proper training in the use of information and communication technologies were responsible for this situation. The study however recommended that various governments in developing nations should assist their journalist to obtain proper training in the use of Information and communication Technologies as well as make the technologies easily accessible to the journalists.
The reviewed work is related to this study in that it used the case study and focused on the impact of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) on mass communication and mass media practice. Another study that underscores the impact of Information and Communication Technologies on broadcasting was conducted by Levis Brown Information in 2007, and on
Communication Technologies for sustainable livelihoods and published by http//egor.gov.sglegout actionplanning:htm (website). The study was conducted to outline the finding from a desk study on new communication technologies and existing information systems on small scale farmers and entrepreneurs in rural communities.
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