THE CHALENGES OF DIGITIZATION ON THE BROADCASTING MEDIA IN NIGERIATHE IMPACT OF TELEVISION VIEWING ON EDUCATION CHILDREN IN NIGERIA.
This research work dealt on the challenges facing Nigeria broadcast media (a case study of FRCN).
Chapter one of the projects provided background information on the problems of the study due to technological backwardness of the Nigeria media. The research sincerely delved into the danger of making Nigeria technological dumping grounds. This chapter outlined the objectives of the study with a view to enhancing the technological development of Nigeria media to the challenges for this twenty first century. One of the high points of this chapter was the significant of the research during which it was found out that there is a great need for Nigeria to develop media technology which would enable the country over come the challenges of this new millennium. Another aspect of the study adequately addressed in this project were the research questions and the research hypothesis as well as the scope of the study.
Chapter two of this project had an in-depth discussion on the literary work which the researcher was exposed to and their sources. Such literature reviews laid credence to the point raised and marshaled by the researcher to arrive at his conclusions and subsequent recommendations. It prayed the vast knowledge and various empirical opinions held by authorities in Mass communication and related sciences as well as technology as regard to the challenges of the new millennium.
Chapter three of this project discussed the methodology and research design, samples and measuring instruments used in the collection and analysis of data. All these stages led to the results which were expected from the research.
Chapter four analysed the data collected from the field work. These data were interpreted for better understanding and logical conclusions based on the field work after the project.
Chapter five which eventually in the conclusion chapter of this research summarized the entire work by drawing certain conclusions in lure with the findings. The chapter made some recommendations on how to ameliorate the difficulties militating against the challenges of the Nigeria broadcast media in this new millennium. Under this chapter, the references, an outline of names and works of authors quoted as authorities and appendix in the research was laid out.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.4 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1.7 CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 SOURCES OF LITERATURE
2.2 THE REVIEW
2.3 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW
3.1 RESEARCH METHOD
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.3 RESEARCH SAMPLE
3.4 MEASURING INSTRUMENT
3.5 DATA COLLECTION
3.6 DATA ANALYSIS
3.7 EXPECTED RESULTS
DATA ANLYSIS AND RESULTS
4.1 DATA ANALYSIS
RECOMMENDATION FOR FURTHER STUDY
This academic research work is aimed to examine all the problems that confronted the Nigeria broadcast media in the last century. The major concern is to propose strategies and recommendations capable of repositioning and re arranging the Nigeria broadcast sector as regard to the federal radio corporation of Nigeria (FRCN). It will reveal a comprehensive study of the operations of FRCN with its zonal organization at Gwagwalada, Enugu, Ibandan, Kaduna and Lagos state. But the study should be limited to FRCN Enugu for easy research.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The first studio of the radio distribution system was set up in Lagos at the Glover memorial hall in 1935. Between 1939 and 1949, other studios were commissioned in Ibadan, Kano, Kaduna, Enugu, Abeokuta, ijebu-ode, Jos, Zaria, calabar and Port Harcourt. They were mainly relay stations from which waved boxes that carried the BBC’s program were extended to the few privileged homes and some community listening centers in the growing urban areas.
Perhaps, it is on record that the first official broadcasting on radio in Nigeria was made by the then governor of Nigeria, Sir Hugh McPherson in may 1949. From then on, radio grew rapidly leading to the establishment of the Nigerian broadcasting service (NBS) the precursor of today’s (FRCN) in 1951. The new service identified itself on air as “radio Nigeria” matters progressed so well in this new enterprise area that by 1956 a bill was passed in the house of representative, for the setting up of a Nigerian broadcasting corporation as successor to NBS.
It is instructive that the reason given from the change of station was in order to remove press criticism that the Nigerian broadcasting service (NBS) is an organ of the Nigerian government.
Thus, even a colonial government was taking the trouble to create a social institution and endow it with the properties of a public trust rather than maintain it as the “voice” of government. This is stations that no government Nigeria (civilian or military) has had the wisdom or courage to confer on present democratic dispensation. That state sub listed more or less until immediately after independence when first signs of governments intention to appropriate the service of the organization to its interest began to appear in the form of the Nigerian broadcasting corporation (NBS) amendment act of 1961.
THE FEDERAL RADIO CORPORATION OF NIGERIA (FRCN)-The coming of the FRCN was one of the four great turning points in the history of the radio broadcasting industry in Nigeria. The first was the establishment of Nigerian broadcasting service. Then, came the founding of the regional government owned station second place followed by the creation of the federal radio corporation in 1978-1979. the fourth landment event was the degeneration of the air waves in 1992.
With the creation of states in 1967 and successful conclusion of the civil war, radio Nigerian expanded exponentially as broadcast studios and transmitters were built in every state capital to connect to the federal broadcasting grid. However, all of that was to change when the federal government decided on a far reaching re organization of radio broadcasting. The NBS was directed to hand over all the new stations it had established in the states to the respective state government and revert to something of the old status quo. The original stations in Lagos, Ibadan and Enugu were then merged with the old northern Nigerian government owned station, the BCNN (also known as radio kaduna.) to form the new FRCN. The new organization was still to be known as radio Nigeria. In time a station was opened in the new federal capital in Abuja. The five statioopns (Abuja, Lagos, Enugu, kaduna and ibadan) each transmitting on short wave, medium wave and now on frequency modulated wave band which today make up the federal radio corporation of Nigeria network African’s largest radio network.
FRCN in this millennium is charged to work immediately with a will to tackle the many sided and daunting challenges of returning the corporation to it’s rightful place of centrality in the governance process and in the lives of the ordinary people of Nigeria as well as the recognition in the realm of world leading broadcast media like CNN, BBC, VOA, and radio France.
Today with clear signals emanating from Abuja and other national stations, radio Nigeria is proudly the network of the millennium and truly the largest radio network in Africa.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
The problem under investigation is the challenges facing Nigerian broadcast media in the new millennium. As regard to the federal radio corporation of Nigeria.(FRCN)
The study will examine how these challenges affect the Nigerian broadcast media in the gathering and dissemination of information. It will also reveal all the impediments that lead to ineffective coverage’s of the Nigeria broadcast media as regard to the FRCN.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objective of the study is to process strategies and recommendation for repositioning and re engineering the corporation as a more dynamic, responsive and effective corporation in this new millennium. Equally, to be more efficient and competitive as a broadcasting institution capable of generating higher recognition in the realm of international broadcasting and world press.
The study will aim to ascertain how the challenges affect FRCN broadcast coverages and the placement of their performance in the realm of world press.
To find out how FRCN compete with foreign broadcasting media like BBC, VOA, CNN and radio France.
To discover whether the FRCN broadcasting differs with the leading world press.
To discover whether the discrepancy can be attributed to lack of professional journalist, obsolete equipment and government broadcasting policies well as political interference in Nigerian governance.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Obviously, the Nigerian broadcast media in the last century could be assessed to have lived reality for shadow, in terms of performance. They have nothing to reckon with due to certain factors.
This study will explore the need for the Nigerian broadcast media to rise up with the jet, modern or supersonic and digitals equipment used by the advanced foreign media i.e. BBC, VOA, CNN and radio France.
The study will make FRCN to call for effective repositioning and reengineering of the corporation. It will portray the need for FRCN to move into the technological no how that pervade the effective coverage and broadcasting. This will call for the need to move in line with the new generation radio broadcasting equipment available in the market and the need for adequate workforce.
In re engineering FRCN, the researcher observed that there is need to toss aside old systems used in the dark or mediaeval stage of the last century broadcasting and coverages, which involves going back to the beginning and re inventing a better ways of doing things effectiveness, today and tomorrow. This means that FRCN and it’s challenges in the new millennium is expected to overcome the deficit budgeting, abysmal audience apathy, changing technology signals and rising from the deep insensitivity to staff welfare, moral and other personnel policy as well as due recognition in the world leading broadcasting media BBC, VOA, CNN and radio France”.
More importantly the study will require a change in Nigerian broad casting media enabled by information and communication technology.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This study is guided by the following questions:
1. Is FRCN facing problems of digital equipments?
2. Do the challenges in technology facing FRCN in this new millennium affect their coverages and broadcasting?
3. Does FRCN programs measured with the western broadcasting?
4. Does the turbulence years in Nigeria affect the repositioning and re engineering of FRCN in this new millennium?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
In attempts to investigate the challenges facing FRCN in this new millennium and the various strategies and forms of overcoming the problems, the following hypothesis has been put in place:
H1 FRCN in this new millennium face digital coverages and broadcast problem.
H0 FRCN in this new millennium does not face digital coverage or broadcast problem
H2 the challenges facing FRCN in this new millennium affect the organization on its coveraged and broadcasting.
H0 the challenges facing FRCN in this new millennium does not affect the corporation on its coverages and broadcasting.
H3 the performance of FRCN in this new millennium can not be measured with the world leading broadcast media.
H0 the performance of FRCN in this new millennium can be measured with that of world leading broadcast media.
H4 political interference hamper and hinder the repositioning and re engineering of the corporation.
H0 political interference does not hamper or hinder the repositioning and re engineering of the corporation.
1.7 CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
Challenges Those questions or problems that hindered and harmed the Nigerian broadcast media as regard to FRCN in the new millennium. I.e. political, social economic and technological problems
broad casting- The systematic dissemination of entertainment, information, education and other features for simultaneous reception by a scattered audience individually or in groups with appropriate receiving apparatus or broadcasting is the transmission of radio and T.V programs intended for the general public reception as distinguished from private signals directed to specific receiver’s.
Millennium- This is how far and future of FRCN in coverage and broadcasting for the last decade “ 100 years ago hence, the expected performance of FRCN in this 21st century as regard to the digital broadcast technology.
Coverage- This means the extend of FRCN in reporting both national and international events.
Challenges- Those things FRCN need, to have a more dynamic, responsive and effective coverage and broad casting globally. To be recognized in the global village.
Technology- That is FRCN to more for the growth and development of modern and supersonic equipment. Hence to too aside the adapted and analogue broadcast equipment and imbibe the use of digital equip0ment.
Re position- That is breaking up bureaucracy having positive changes in political, social, economic and technological improvement.
Coverage- The extent of FRCN audience coverage in Nigeria and the need to cover the rest of the world like BBC, VOA, CNN and radio France international, nigerian launched it’s satellites
CNN- Cable news network
BBC- British broadcasting corporation
VOA- Voice of America.
It is assume that after this study federal radio cooperation of Nigeria (FRCN) should have the strategies to reposition and re engineer the corporation as a more dynamic responsive and effective corporation. This is because the study explores the need for socio, political change and the need for digital\l and supersonics equipment to Nigeria broadcast media. It also affirms the need for FRCN recognition in the realm of world lending broadcasting media.