STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF SOLAR POWER
The utilization of new and alternative energy sources, specifically solar energy, has been on the rise and will continue to grow as we attempt to diminish our use and dependency on older, nonrenewable energy sources. One of the biggest challenges involved with the use of solar energy, or renewable energy in general, is how to provide this energy for general public use. Some of the limiting factors to this are the efficiency in which solar power can be harvested and converted into usable energy, and the cost of the technology to do this. Recent technological developments have included the microinverter, which harvests dc solar power and converts it into usable ac power on a per-module basis, making the technology a viable option for those looking to benefit from solar power. However, problems arise with solar power such as photovoltaic (PV) intermittency. PV intermittency can affect the output power quality and reliability of a PV system. But, by better understanding PV intermittency, steps can be taken in order to enhance PV systems. But regardless of the effects that intermittency has on PV system output, the benefits a large scaled PV system can have on a distribution system can still be analyzed. This thesis details the work I have done as an undergraduate, which includes testing of a microinverter, collecting irradiance data and analyzing the effects that a PV system can have on the voltage regulation of a distribution system.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The continuous growth of scarcity of energy (both mechanical and electrical energy in Nigeria has grown overtime); is one among the factors hampering the industrial growth and economic progress in Nigeria. There federal government of Nigeria through the ministry of power have put in so much effort to fix the problem of power instability in Nigeria; setting up of new power plant will be heavily dependent on import of highly volatile fossil fuels or the over-utilization of the available mineral resource thereby affecting the export of crude oil and other resources in Nigeria.
It is therefore very important to tackle the energy crises through judicious utilization of abundant renewable energy resources such as Biomas energy, solar energy, wind energy and geothermal energy. Apart from the effective utilization of the energy supply, renewable resources will help Nigeria in mitigating climate change. Solar Power a clean renewable resource with zero emission has got tremendous potential of energy which can be harnessed using a variety of devices. With recent developments, solar energy systems are easily available for industrial and domestic use with the added advantage of minimum maintenance.
Solar energy could be made financially viable with government tax incentives and rebates. Most of the developed countries are switching over to solar energy as one of the prime renewable energy source. The current architectural designs make provision for photovoltaic cells and necessary circuitry while making building plans. Recently according to (Federal Ministry of Environment, 2013) stated that there have been several renewable energy projects in many countries which shows clearly that renewable energy can directly contribute to poverty alleviation by providing a substantial amount of energy needed for creating businesses and employment especially in rural communities that have not yet been connected to the National grid.
Several renewable energy technologies are presently being used to supply energy for cooking, space heating, lighting, automobiles, etc. The combination of energy efficiency, conservation, and renewable energy resources, should allow Nigeria to meet any future increase in demand without increasing its reliance on non-renewable resources (Federal Ministry of Environment, 2013). Solar energy can be seen as the anchor behind various forms of renewable energy. According to (Tyagi et al., 2013) stated that it anchors hydro power where the hydrological cycle is being controlled by the sun as well as Wind Power where the movement of air is due to the heating effect of the sun on the atmosphere. In general, heat, kinetic energy, electrical energy and chemical energy can be provided via solar energy conversion
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
What instigated the study on the effect of solar power is the over reliance on electricity as a source of power. The maintenance cost of the power sector of Nigeria is really a major clog on the wheel of the growth and development of Nigeria. Most of the huge industries in Nigeria could not run effectively because daily consumption of fuel, diesel etc to run most of their big machineries. The above effect is also seen in the small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria; it is obvious that the switch to solar energy will go a long way in solving the problems associated with the unavailability of power from other sources such (electrical and mechanical) but there are still some issues at hand which is the cost of implementing the solar power by most of the small and medium scale enterprise. Even with the developments the issue of implementation needs to be tackled.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the research work is to examine the effect of solar power. Other specific objectives of the study include:
To examine the effect solar power on the economy of Nigeria
To examine the effect of solar power on poverty alleviation in Nigeria
To investigate on the factors affecting the effective implementation of solar in most industries in Nigeria To compare the cost of implementation of solar power to other sources of power To proffer solution to the above problem
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
The study came up with the following research questions in order to ascertain the above stated objectives. The research questions are stated below as follows: The main aim of the research work is to examine the effect of solar power. Other specific objectives of the study include:
What is the effect solar power on the economy of Nigeria?
What is the effect of solar power on poverty alleviation in Nigeria?
What are the factors affecting the effective implementation of solar in most industries in Nigeria?
Is there any difference in the cost of implementation of solar power to other sources of power?
1.5 SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY
The study on the effect of solar power after completion will be of immense benefit to Nigeria as a country, the federal government of Nigeria, the power sector, the small and medium scale enterprises and other research students that wishes to carryout similar research on the above topic as the study will reveal the effect of the implementation of solar power on the economy, the effect will also be seen in the area of poverty alleviation etc.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on the effect of solar energy is limited to Nigeria only as it will discuss other source of power the country is blessed with and their effect on the economy of Nigeria.
1.7 ORGANISATION OF STUDY
This section deals with the organization of the research work in chapters; the chapter one of the research work will cover the background of the study, the statement of problem, the aims and objectives of study, significance and the scope of study, the chapter two will deal with the review of related literature on the effect of solar power. The chapter three of the research work will cover the areas of materials and method. The chapter four will cover the area of generation and commercialization of solar power in Nigeria while the chapter five will cover the summary, conclusion and possible recommendation for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS SOLAR POWER:
is the conversion of sunlight intoelectricity, either directly using photo-voltaic (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power. Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam
BIOMASS:is organic matter derived from living, or recently living organisms. Biomass can be used as a source of energy and it most often refers to plants or plant-based materials that are not used for food or feed, and are specifically called lignocellulose biomass
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY: is the heat from the Earth. It’s clean and sustainable. Resources of geothermal energy range from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few miles beneath the Earth’s surface, and down even deeper to the extremely high temperatures of molten rock called magma