CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS, AGE RANGE 12-19
This study dealt with the Causes and effects of cigarette smoking on students, social behaviour and academic achievement. To carryout the research effectively, two (2) research question and two(2) hypothesis were formulated. The population of the study consist of two hundred (200) senior students of cross River State.. The major instrument for collection of data was questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed using mean and standard deviation, pearson’ correlation. The major findings of the study are: (i) Cigarette smoking is greatly influence student’s beahviour and their been popular in class and groups which makes them loose their chances of a prudence person. (ii) The Causes and effects of cigarette smoking on students social behaviour is not significant, thus their isolation from group or classes is as a result of constant smoking of the hemp. (iii) The students that smoke cigarette were intrinsically influence by their follow students that smoke cigarette. The result of hypotheses one revealed that there is negative correlation between students smoking cigarette and their social behaviour. (v) The result of hypotheses two showed that the Causes and effects of cigarette smoking on student academic achievement is significant. Following these findings some recommendations and suggestions for further studies were finally made.
Background of the Study
Cigarette smoking in recent years has become considerably pleasurable to the addict. Different classes of people use it, it could be wrapped and smoked, it could be soaked into local gin and sold by local gin sellers, which abound in many part of our society. It is known by a number of slang names, including pot, grass, reefer, weed, and Mary Jane. (Iversen, 2008). Iversen also noted that cigarette is a substance that has long been used as medicine and an intoxicant.
Nowlis (1975) observed that cigarette is a substance which affects the structure and function of the organism negatively inducing the organism into states, such as confusion, acute panic reactions, anxiety attacks, fear, a sense of helplessness, and loss of self-control. It was reported in Tide magazine of July 6th (2008), that, cigarette is among the cheapest class of hard drugs that many secondary school students could purchase and use. A rap of cigarette is sold for N20.00 while a pinch of cocaine or heroin goes for N50.00 and above. The implication of this is that large numbers of Nigerian youths have access to cigarette.
Akube (1997) explained that cigarette is a produce that harm the body of a smoker. This is a situation where the person inhales the burning fumes produced by the hand-rolled cigarettes form or pipes. Some of the observable characteristics of smokers that distinguish them from non smokers are odour similar to the burnt leave, excessive laughter, unkempt hairs, red eyes, black lips, excessive appetite, yellowish stains on fingertips etc. Cigarette smoking is widely spread among adolescents, students and young adults. The percentage of middle school students, who are reported to have been using or smoking cigarette, increase throughout the early
1990, 1991 and 1992. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2003). Cigarette smoking is a common phenomenon among students in senior secondary school in the area of study. Anumonye(1980) observed that secondary school students who smokes cigarette initiate themselves by smoking at the age of 11 years, and that a friend‘s home is the most often smoking place, and the observable behavior among this smokers are relaxation and a feeling of well being, euphoria, enhanced sensation of taste, touch, hearing and vision.
Abimbola Fashola, wife of the Lagos State Governor was reported in the Tide Tuesday July 6th (2008), urging the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency to identify and educate grower and smokers of Indian hemp on it harmful effect on the society. Tide (2008) reported that, the commander of National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) Mr. Eigege Adamu, in River State, in an address at ceremony of United Nation day on Drug said that cigarette is an illicit drug,that causes 80% of violent crime among secondary school students in our society. The extent of Indian hemp abuse among secondary school students has prompted the mass media to organize discussion by official of mass media on ills of cigarette smoking.
Non-smokers in this study are therefore referred to as, students who do not indulge in the smoking of cigarette whether in secret or in public places, and are involved in positive academic activities that will impact positively in their lives. Non-smokers are also individuals or students who do not possess the observable characteristics of those who indulge in the smoking acts. These are normal students that keep the rules and regulations of the school and obey constituted authorities.
Statement of the Problem
Cigarette smoking by students has been largely associated with various factors and has been addressed from different dimensions by the researcher. Such influence suffices due to changes in the environment and school climate; it is also ranging from pleasure seeking, differing stress, joblessness, parental background and peer pressure.
However, it has been observed that cigarette smoking has a very strong influence on students‘ social behaviour and academic achievement. Students‘ lifestyles remain an important determinant to their behaviour. Cigarette smoking could influence social behaviour and academic achievement of students in school, negative social behaviour like cultism; truancy, drug/alcohol, gangsterism, and examination malpractice have been on the increase recently. Furthermore,the environment, which one finds himself, influences him/her. However, literature review show that no study has been carried out on the Causes and effects of cigarette smoking, on student‘s social behaviour and academic achievement among students in secondary school in Ikom Educational zone.
The thrust of this work is therefore to find answers to the following questions ―how does cigarette smoking influence students social behaviour as compared to non smokers and their academic achievement in secondary schools in Ikom educational zone of Cross River State?‖
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to find out the Causes and effects of cigarette smoking on students social behaviour and academic
achievement in Ikom Educational zone of Cross River State. Specifically, the study will seek to find out:
- The Causes of cigarette smoking on students‘.
- The effects of cigarette smoking on students‘ social behavior and academic achievement, compared to non their smokers.
Significance of the Study
It is hoped that the findings of this study will help to understand the behavioural patterns of students who smoke cigarette in Ikom educational zone.
It is hoped that teachers will help to identify these students and know how to do placement in the class and equally know where to position these students in class environment.
The study will be useful for teachers who are directly involved with the students and are aware of the Causes and effects of cigarette smoking on students social behaviour and academic achievement in schools and in turn help them out.
School administrators and policy makers who are directly involve in formulating policies will create conducive learning environment for the students and it will also help educational psychologist in the areas of researching and developing theories and techniques in dealing with maladjusted behaviours‘. Parents will benefit immensely as it will enable them identify such delinquent behaviours and promptly call for intervention from the appropriate authority. The students will also benefits as they will realize the Causes and effects of cigarette smoking on their social behaviour and academic achievemen.t
Scope of the Study
The study will be carried out in Ikom educational zone and will be limited to eight( 8) public secondary schools. Day students presently in their senior secondary school class will be used for this study. The content scope of this study will be delimited to the Causes and effects of cigarette smoking on students‘ social behaviour and academic achievement.
In order to meet the objectives of this study the following research questions have been formulated.
- What are the causes of cigarette smoking among students?
- To what extent does cigarette smoking influence students‘ social behavior and academic achievement, compared to their non smokers?
The following null hypothesis will be formulated and tested at, 0.05 level of significance.
- Cigarette smoking does not have any significant influence on student social behavior, compared to their non smokers.
- Cigarette smoking does not have a significant influenced on student academic achievement, compared to their non smokers. PROJECTCHAMPIONZ PROJECT TOPICS ON CIGARETTE SMOKING