EXTENT OF COMPUTER LITERACY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL SCIENCE TEACHERS’ IN EZZA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE
The study investigates the extent of computer literacy among secondary school teachers in Ezza South local government area of Ebonyi state. Four (4) research questions guided this study. Descriptive survey design was adopted in the study. The population of the students at the study area put at 3289 in four public and four private secondary school in the area, simple random sampling was used in selecting one school each from the development centers in Ezza South local government area and five science teachers were selected from each school which gives a sample size of forty (40) respondents. Data was collected using structured questionnaire. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions. From the data analysis it was discovered that science teachers have high rate of computer skills, they are fully aware of computer relevance, and can use the computer for different purposes in life. The researcher therefore recommended that public-spirited individuals and organization should assist the government in procuring computers for use in schools.
KEYWORD: EXTENT OF COMPUTER LITERACY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL SCIENCE TEACHERS’ IN EZZA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents viii
List of Tables xiii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 7
Purpose of the Study 8
Significance of the Study 9
The Scope of the Study 11
Research Question 11
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 13
Computer literacy 13
Theoretical Framework 24
Review of Empirical Studies 25
Summary of Related Literature 26
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 28
Research Design 28
Area of the Study 29
Population of the study 29
Sample and Sampling Technique 29
Instrument for Data Collection 30
Validation of Instrument 31
Reliability of the Instrument 32
Method of Data Collection 32
Method of Data Analysis 32
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 34
Summary of Findings 39
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS, LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY, AREAS FOR FURTHER STUDIES, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 40
Discussion of Findings 40
Educational Implications of the Study 41
Limitations of the Study 42
Areas for Further Studies 43
Summary and Conclusion 44
APPENDIX I 47
List of Table
Table 1: Mean Result on the Extent of Computer Literacy Possessed by Secondary School Science Teachers? 34
Table II: Mean Result on the Extent of Awareness of Computer Possessed by Secondary School Science Teachers? 35
Table III: Mean Result on the Extent Competence of Computer Knowledge among Science Teachers 36
Table IV: Mean Result on the Extent of Computer use in Secondary School Science Classroom. 37
Over the years, most schools across the nation have been joining the technology revolution. Today, students have at least some form of technology available to them in school. This trend is not likely to change, so there is an increasing need for teachers who are literate in the use of the various types of technology. Manson and McMorow (2006) suggested that there are two distinct components to computer literacy; “awareness and competence”.
Awareness requires that a person should have understanding of how computer affect their daily life or society at large, and competence requires that a person should be able to exhibit a hands on expertise with a software application. Both of these components should be evaluated when looking at computer literacy within the classroom setting.
In modern classrooms, teachers and students have access to wide variety of technology. Various types of technology including computers, projectors, handhelds, television and digital cameras are more accessible now than ever before. This type of technology also called instructional technology has helped in moving the classroom from a teacher-centered environment to a more student centered one (Trotter, 2008). Through the use of technology necessary information is transmitted widely within the shortest possible time. Through the use of these technologies researchers, scholars, and professionals are able to meet, interact and exchange ideas in the field of education.
Lu and Miller (2012) also stated that instructional technology encompass a wide variety of technologies as well as systems used to deliver information. Many secondary schools science classroom are integrating technology to help students better understand the concepts that are being taught (Croxall and Cumming, 2010).
While teachers are trying to implement new types of instructional technology into their classrooms, many of them are faced with barriers that hinder their attempt to advance. Beyond mere awareness and competence, anxieties, lack of training, and absolute equipment are barriers faced by the teacher on a daily basis (Redmann and Kotrlik, 2008). Through various research studies that have been conducted with secondary school science teachers, researcher has found out that teachers have positive attitude about technology despite the barriers they face when trying to become literate in the functioning of the equipment. If the problems faced by the teachers are tackled, they will better fully integrate more technologies into the classroom, thus giving students a wide learning opportunities and help them to become technologically prepared for their problem solving in the future. The use of technology in education helps in the following: Introduction of simulations and games pedagogical strategies, computer based instructions, administrative effectiveness, school discipline, research publications facilities, and effective teaching-learning process. Also, of recent, teachers log into websites to access necessary information for research and assignments. However, adequate use of technologies in schools demands effective computer literacy skills and acquisition.
Computer literacy on this context deals with the ability to understand and use technology for instructional purposes. It tries to examine the capability of science teachers who may use the technology for delivering of lesson to student to ensure effective teaching-learning.
With the introduction of computer education into secondary school curricula, there is an urgent need to examine the science teachers’ awareness of the extent of utilization of various uses of computer such as an instructional delivery process (e.g) the use of computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The uses of computers by the science teachers however assist in the curriculum contact delivery. Computers in the school system assist in the academic environment to store, display, transmit, and analyze data by the educational researchers.
A couple of examples of these uses are helpful. For instance Kpolovie (2006) observed that the use statistics helps administrator, academicians, teachers, and researchers by overcoming the rigor of manual analysis of primary data.
Computer literacy can be accomplished in different ways: through self-directed learning, technology training classes or following a six-phase model developed by Russell (2015), which involves awareness, learning the process, understanding and application of the process, familiarity and confidence, adaptation to other contexts and creative application to new contexts. He perceived the term “computer literacy” as comfort levels someone has with using computer programs and other applications that are associated with computers.
The researcher in his opinion viewed computer literate individual as someone who has basic knowledge in all aspects of computer while computer literacy is the ability to understand the basic knowledge of computer and its application in all the areas of human endeavors.
As teachers develop computer literacy, they will be more likely to use various types of technology to present information in their classes. However, the teacher’s efforts towards developing computer literacy and using various instructional technologies may be hindered by a variety of obstacles (Croxall and Wright 2010). The barriers according to them include:
- Obsolete equipment
- Lack of time during the day for teachers to learn, practice, or plan ways to use computers or the internet
- Lack of administrative support and
- Inadequate number of computers can complicate a teacher’s plan for instruction involving technology. Despite all these, teachers still appear to use technology and are trying to find the means of doing so. However, the relationship between the secondary school science teachers’ access to technology and their use of technology in the classroom is determined by the availability of those technologies that are required for use in the classroom and their levels of computer literacy which enables them utilize those technologies more efficiently. Computer literacy is therefore, inevitable for both the teachers and principles, if schools are to be effective and if their academic goals are to be achieved. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) cited the importance of computer literacy in teacher education programs, exposure to changes in the methodologies, curriculum reform, and that innovation in the profession is very important. It noted that computer literacy skills enable teachers to implement effective record keeping strategies, and computer assisted instruction and communication.
Access to various types of technology means the various technology that can easily be located within the classroom or easily accessible within the building. For teachers to effectively integrate technology into the classroom, they must have easy access to various types of technology. These include videotape, television, desktop computers, CD-Rom, internet, e-mail, laser printer and video camera. Access to technology within the school is an important component when implementing its use into the science classroom (Alston, Miller & Williams 2013). Without adequate access to various types of technology including computers, internet, and technology experts, teachers are unable to provide technology-enriched classroom lessons to their students. However, their access to various types of technology during instructional delivery depends on their awareness and competence of the technology.
The researcher viewed science as the intellectual and practical activity which comprises the systemic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment. It could also be seen as the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence, while science teacher is the person who guides the students understanding and knowledge of the natural phenomenon through systematic observation and experimentation.
The researcher embarked on this study to investigate the influence of computer literacy skills as it impact science teachers’ teaching in secondary schools especially in Ezza South Local Government area of Ebonyi State.
Even though computer science and technology is a relatively new phenomenon in the teaching and learning environment in Nigeria, the use of computer is reflected in many areas of human activities such as medicine, domestic activities, engineering, architecture, and education. It is imperative to not that the use of computer is reflected in the secondary school programs.
However, computer science and technology in the educational sector calls for all the stake holders in education to be computer literate, if the schools are to cope with the challenges in the society. It is important to note that the need for science teachers to be computer literate is to enable them bring a wealth of information into the classroom during instructional delivery.
In Ebonyi state, it is assumed that only few of the teaching population has the training to effectively use technology in the classroom such as computers and projectors. This has not been ascertained by any known research. Lack of computer literacy in line with other barriers can hinder the understanding of science in Ebonyi state. There is need therefore to find out the extent science teachers have acquired computer literacy that is why the question that agitates the mind of the researcher is: What is the extent of computer literacy among secondary school science teachers?
The main focus of this study is to discover the extent of computer literacy among secondary school science teachers in Ezza South local government areas of Ebonyi state. Specifically, the study sought to determine the extent of:
- Computer literacy possessed by secondary school science teachers in Ezza south local government area of Ebony state
- Awareness of computer possessed by secondary school science teachers in Ezza South local government area.
- Competence of computer knowledge among secondary school science teachers in Ezza South local government area
- Computer use in science classrooms by secondary school science teachers in Ezza South local government area of Ebony state.
While attempts have been made to determine the level of computer literacy possessed by secondary school science teachers and the use of technology in the general classroom setting, few studies have looked specifically at the secondary school science teachers. Therefore, the research shall benefit the following groups:
- The government
- The parents
- The students
- The researchers
It is very important to briefly explain how the above mentioned groups should benefit this research work.
The employers of labour shall benefit from this project work in the sense that it will enable them to know the ability/capacity of secondary school science teachers for teaching computer. Government will find this study very useful to enable them picture the exact number of computer literate science teachers in our secondary school system.
Today, computer does a lot of work that should been done by man in lesser time with accuracy. Therefore, this project work will help the parents to know the benefits of being computer literate in the society and hence motivate them to give their children full support in acquiring the knowledge of computer. It will help in buying computer text for them and as well fund their training.
In our institutions of higher learning, the importance of computer cannot be over emphasized. Having known the importance from this project work, it encourages the students and give them the motivation to study computer with full interest. The students will equally writing their project.
Researchers as well as will benefit much from this work because it will give them the knowledge about project work, research method and how to go about it. There are so much ideas and pieces of information the researcher will gain from this work that will help to equip them even to write books/novels on their own. They will know the number of secondary schools and their locations in Ezza South Local Government in Ebonyi State. They will also know the number of science teachers that are computer literate in Ezza South local government area.
The study will focus on the extent of computer literacy among secondary school science teachers in Ezza South local government area of Ebonyi state. The people to collect information from will be the principals and teachers in the various government and private schools selected.
In order to achieve the purpose of this study, the following research questions were developed to guide the study;
- What are the extents of computer literacy possessed by secondary school science teachers in Ezza South local government are?
- What are the extents of awareness of computer possessed by secondary school science teacher knowledge among science teachers in Ezza South Local Government Area?
- What are the extents of competence of computer knowledge among science teachers?
- What are the extents of computer use in science classrooms?
The following hypotheses were formulated at 0.05 level of significance.
HO1: There is no significant difference on the extent of computer literacy possessed by male and female science teachers in Ezza South local government area
HO2: There is no significant difference on the extent of awareness of computer possessed by science teachers in Ezza South local government area of Ebonyi state.
HO3: There is no significant difference on the extent of competence computer knowledge among secondary school science teachers in Ezza South Local Government area of Ebonyi State.
Ho4: There is no significant difference on the extent of computer use in secondary school science classrooms.
EXTENT OF COMPUTER LITERACY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL SCIENCE TEACHERS’ IN EZZA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE