SONOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS OF SOME OCULAR PARAMETERS OF INDIGENOUS NIGERIAN DOGS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA

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SONOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS OF SOME OCULAR PARAMETERS OF INDIGENOUS NIGERIAN DOGS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA

Abstract:

Ultrasound imaging is a successful imaging modality with a broad variety of diagnostic applications including detection of ocular pathologies. This study was aimed to conduct ophthalmic sonographic examination using B-scan and to provide baseline information from the ultrasonographic examination of clinically healthy eyes of the indigenous dogs; and to determine pachymetry of the clinically healthy indigenous dog eyes based on age, sex, weight and Intraocular pressure (IOP) readings. Eighty (80) indigenous Nigerian dogs were selected and distributed into three groups according to age; thus, group 1 (G1) was composed of puppy-young dogs (≤ 1 – year – old), group 2 (G2) was composed of adult dogs (˃ 1 ≤ 4 – years – old) and group 3 (G3) was composed of older-senior dogs (˃ 4 – years – old). Ultrasonographic examination was performed using a B-mode ocular ultrasound unit (Medison S600) equiped with a 7.5 MHz curvilinear probe with the dogs adequately restrained by physical technique, and the structures of the ocular globe was evaluated at a depth of 4-6 cm. For each group, baseline data were obtained for corneal thickness (D1), anterior chamber depth (D2), lens thickness (D3), vitreous chamber depth (D4), and the axial length of the eye (D5). Similarly, the baseline data were obtained for anterior chamber area (A1), lens area (A2), vitreous chamber area (A3) and ocular globe area (A4). Our result revealed that the ocular parameters of the Indigenous Nigerian dogs‘ varied in two patterns: corneal thickness (D1), lens thickness and area (D3 and A2) and axial length and area (D5 and A4) increased with age from puppy to the adult and the older dogs‘ group in both sexes. However, the anterior chamber depth and area (D2 and A1) and vitrous depth and area (D4 and A3) increased initially with age from puppy to the adult dogs‘ group and then decreased slightly in the older dogs‘ group. No differences were observed when comparing pachymetry of the left and right eyes of dogs within the same age conformation group (p > 0.05). vii Similarly, no statistically significant relationship was observed between the ocular parameters of the male and female (P > 0.05), within the groups. The intraocular pressure (IOP) of the studied dogs‘ eye varied in a similar pattern as the weight when we compared both variables with the ocular parameters measured. No correlation using Pearson‘s test was observed between corneal thickness and the weight of the dogs, as well as the between the corneal thickness and the IOP in all the groups (P > 0.05). However, a positive correlation was observed between weight and the other ocular parameters in all groups, and as well as between IOP and all ocular parameter that were considered (P < 0.05). The three (3) major ocular segments- anterior chamber, lens capsule and vitreous chamber was demonstrated in this study to represent approximately 2%, 17% and 76% respectively of the entire ocular globe area. The ciliary body and muscles, suspensory ligament and posterior chamber makes up the remainder 5%. Our findings, although preliminary, are relevant for a complete diagnosis of certain ocular conditions. Based on the results obtained, it is possible to conclude that ophthalmic ultrasound in B-mode, is an effective method in determining the anatomical relation necessary to perform biometry of intraocular structures of indigenous Nigerian dogs and to obtain ocular parameters in Indigenous Nigerian dogs

SONOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS OF SOME OCULAR PARAMETERS OF INDIGENOUS NIGERIAN DOGS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA

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