PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN THE PREVENTION OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE
- This study was instituted to find out the effects of parental involvement in the prevention of substance abuse inKaduna State. The study had three objectives, research questions and three hypotheses. This study employed a survey research design, the population of the study was forty one thousand four hundred and thirty eight parents (41438) and a sample size of eight hundred and twenty eight (828) samples, four hundred and fourteen (414)Non-single parents and four hundred and fourteen (414) single parents across Kaduna State. Means and standard deviation were used to analyse the data collected and the test of hypotheses was based at 0.05 level of significant. The study found that no difference existed on Non-Single and Single parents perceived causes of substance abuse among Youths. The findings shows that there is no significant difference of authoritative parental style on the control and prevention of substance abuse among Youths. The study, recommended that parents perceived causes of drug abuse among Youths should guard against the causes in Kaduna state. |Male and female Youths should be engaged in attainment of good programmes in the school that will served as source of learning good values among Youths. This therefore become remedy among Youths taking drugs abuse in Kaduna state.
Drug abuse among adolescents continues to be a major problem worldwide, and in particular, Nigeria (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2009). Most teenagers begin to experiment with substances at an early age (Jaffe, 1998). The most widely abused substances are alcohol, tobacco and cannabis because they are in excess (Alcohol and substance abuse information, (Madu & Matla, 2003). Most high schools encounter problems with males who smoke cigarettes and dagga on the school premises. Some of these males come to school under the influence of liquor. Abuse of substances among adolescents is associated with a broad range of high-risk behaviour. This type of behaviour can have profound health, economic and social consequences, for example, some adolescents participate in deviant peer groups, unprotected sexual intercourse, interpersonal violence, destruction of property and perform poorly in their studies (Jaffe, 1998).According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2008), substance abuse is worsened by complex socio-economic challenges such as unemployment, poverty and crime in general. These social ills are devastating many families and communities. Substances from all over the world currently flood Nigeria. Drug pushers are forcing young people into taking substances so that once they are hooked; they can manipulate their friends into taking substances (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2008). Too many youth seem to think of experimentation with substances as an acceptable part of transition into adulthood. Few take seriously the negative consequences of dependence on substances (Madu & Matla, 2003).
Various theories such as disease or biomedical theory, psychological theories, progression theories, economic theories, symbolic and interaction theory, social control theory, and availability theories explain the reasons for substance use (Ciccheti, 2007; Crain, 2004). These theories will be discussed further in chapter 2. Substance abuse among adolescents costs a country a lot of money every year. This is evident in large sums of money that are used in prevention and treatment centres throughout Nigeria (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2008). Eventually this affects the whole country because these funds could be used in other avenues such as poverty alleviation programmes, since poverty is one of the reasons that lead to substance abuse. According to Melgosa (2012) although adolescents can give impression of having enough autonomy and capable to face life’s challenges, they are aware of their limitations and often feel confused and insecure. Different from the majority belief they are deep down and often open to help from parents and other adults. The implication was that parents must provide to their children the best possible start in life to include basic skills with which to function in society (socialization). They need to acquire education, experience, attitudes and behaviors from their parents or other caregivers for able to adapt in the society. For example adolescents whose general behavior is controlled by their parents show levels of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use (Choquet, et al., 2007 ; Moore, Rothwell, & Segrott, 2010).To overcome this problem, parents need to educate and protect their children from risk behaviors and become good citizens in the future. Therefore, parents required support to develop their parenting skills needed to protect their children from risk behaviors such as alcohol and drug use and abuse. Nigerians living in rural or urban areas who adheres to traditional values may employ parenting behaviors that are contrasting with their children level of acculturation known as the process of adaptation of the attitudes, values, and behaviors of western culture through globalization and new technology. On the other hand, as the majority of parents in rural areas may be more liberal are towards drug use(e.g attitudes towards use, provide alcohol with meals), the more likely it is that their adolescents will be involved in abuse of various substances and drugs (Moore, Rothwell, & Segrott, 2010).
Parents, educators, social workers and the police have tried their best to discourage the adolescents to stop using substances through awareness campaigns, but their efforts seem to be ineffective. There is a need for intensive inter sectoral intervention strategies to address the substance abuse problem before it escalates even further. In line with the above, recent development in the field of parenting and family studies have interested in the relationship between adolescent’ alcohol, substance and other drug use behavior and parenting style. These developments have illustrated the need for the study on adolescent alcohol, substance and other drug use behavior. Parental responsibility start from the first day of a child life in the womb where they have to protect the child from effect of substance use by mother and the process of socialization start as soon as the child was born. This paper therefore intends to examine parental involvement in the control and prevention of substance abuse.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The study is conducted for the following reasons: The extent of substance abuse among adolescents is on the rise. There is a high death rate among adolescents due to substance abuse. Parents are trying their best to discourage adolescents from using substances, yet their efforts seem to be ineffective. Parents and adolescents need to be made aware of the extent of substance use and its effects. Parents seem not to be able to assist and even cope with adolescents once they are dependent on substances. The Nigerian society is facing a high rate of drug and other substance abuse, as a result this has a negative effect on the well being of the community. Some of the adolescents who abuse drugs do not perform well in their studies. Others drop-out of school.This adds to the number of illiterate and unemployed youth in Nigeria. Adolescents abusing substances tend to be aggressive and uncontrollable.
The study will help parents with clarity their role in eliminating/reducing substance abuse in our community as well as suggesting measures which could be applied to prevent and control the abuse of drugs and other substance in Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The followings are the objectives of the study:
- To determine the perception of Non-Single and Single parents on the causes of substance abuse among Youths in Kaduna State.
- To find out what parents perceived as remedies of Substance/drug abuse among Youths in Kaduna State
- To determine from male and female parents the effects of authoritative parental style on the control and prevention of substance use/abuse in Kaduna State
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions are raised for the purpose of this study
- What do Non-single and Single Parents perceive as the causes of drug abuse among Youths in Kaduna state?
- What is the perception of Non-single and Single parents on remedies to drug abuse among Youths in Kaduna state?
- Is authoritative parental style effective in the control and prevention of substance use/abuseeffective in Kaduna state?
The following hypotheses were formulated and tested.
- There is significant difference on the perception of Non-single and Single Parents on the causes of drug abuse among Youths in Kaduna State.
- There is significant difference between Non-single and Single Parents perception on the remedies of drug abuse among Youths in Kaduna state.
- There is significant difference between males and females parents on the effects of authoritative parental style on the prevention and control ofsubstanceuse/abuse among Youths in Kaduna state.
1.6 Basic Assumption of the study
The following basic assumptions are made for this study:
- Non-single and Single Parents have the same perception on the causes of drug abuse
- There may be relation between the perceived remedies of drug abuse by Single and Non-single parents.
- Authoritative parental style is effective in the prevention and control of substance abuse/use is very effective.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The findings of this research would go a long way in assisting parents in providing counseling and related services to their children, thus curtailing incidences of drug and abuse of other substances. Parents would also benefit from the findings of the study when provisions are made going by its recommendations on measures to take in preventing substance abuse. Also, adolescents would gain knowledge that can free them from the bondage of drugs for better behavior.
Religious organization will benefit from the findings of the study by providing preventive measures to the young once and it will serve as counseling tools for Pastors, Imam and other religious organizational leader. Every nation wants its citizens to be sensible and productive; therefore the government of Nigeria would find this research useful as future leaders (youths) behaviour would be molded through strategies that will be suggested.
1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the study
This study is focused on Youths in Kaduna State. The study is on some selected parents from Kaduna State. Parental involvement in the control and prevention of substance abuse is the concern of the study. The study is on senior Youths that partake in the use of drugs abuse and parents‘ perception on the causes of drugs abuse as while as the perceived remedies of drugs abuse among the Youths and the effects of authoritative parental style on the prevention and control of substance use.
PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN THE PREVENTION OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE