DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN AUTOMATIC PARKING LIGHT IN A CAR

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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN AUTOMATIC PARKING LIGHT IN A CAR

ABSTRACT

This project work is on design and construction of an automatic parking light in a car. Parking lights are automotive lamps designed to increase the visibility of a car in a variety of situations. Although most nations no longer require the use of these lights, they can be extremely useful. Almost all cars are fitted with them, although they are often linked with the headlights. Formerly, parking lights were run on a different electrical system, and were intended for use when cars were parked along narrow, poorly lit roads, to alert oncoming drivers to the presence of the parked car. In some regions of the world, they still serve this function.However, an automatic parking light in a car is designed to turn on the parking lights automatically for 30 seconds when an approaching vehicle’s light is detected from the rear or front side. This automatic feature provides safety at night for a parked vehicle.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.0                                          INTRODUCTION
Parking lights are automotive lamps designed to increase the visibility of a car in a variety of situations. Although most nations no longer require the use of these lights, they can be extremely useful. Almost all cars are fitted with them, although they are often linked with the headlights. Formerly, parking lights were run on a different electrical system, and were intended for use when cars were parked along narrow, poorly lit roads, to alert oncoming drivers to the presence of the parked car. In some regions of the world, they still serve this function.
However, an automatic parking light in a car is designed to turn on the parking lights automatically for 30 seconds when an approaching vehicle’s light is detected from the rear or front side. This automatic feature provides safety at night for a parked vehicle.
Except in the United States, parking lights must have clear lenses so that they emit white light. The white light is highly visible, even in poor conditions, although it is not as bright as the headlights, as the lamps and surface area covered by the lens are smaller. In the United States, such lights are frequently produced with amber lenses, to help distinguish them from red brake lights and white headlights.
Typically, a car has parking lights located on either side of the front of the car, on the outside of the headlights. They may also appear in the rear, or along the side of the vehicle to further increase visibility. In a car where these lights are separated from headlights, allowing drivers to use one or both sets, they are usually linked to the switch used for headlights, which is turned once for parking and twice for headlights. Although parking lights are sometimes referred to as running lights, they are not always the same. Drivers should be aware that, in most regions, it is illegal to drive at night with just the parking lights on although this practice used to be allowed in some cities. In most US states, it is illegal to drive with just the parking lights on whether in the day or night. Leaving running lights on during the day is perfectly legal, however, and is often encouraged. Drivers should consult the the appropriate regulatory body to be sure of the rules that affect them.
In addition to increasing visibility and alerting other drivers to the presence of a car, parking lights can also be useful in emergencies. In some cities where it is permitted, drivers use them to drive at night in well light areas, to help reduce light pollution. In addition, should a headlight go out while driving, the lights, which are typically on with the headlights in most car designs, can help to compensate and make other drivers aware that the approaching vehicle is a car with one headlight, not a motorcycle.

1.1                             OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
At night, parking lights make your parked car visible to motorists so they don’t smash into your car. However, these lights drain considerable power out of your car’s battery. This device is designed to turn on the parking lights automatically for 30 seconds when an approaching vehicle’s light is detected from the rear or front side. This automatic feature provides safety at night for a parked vehicle.

1.2                          SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
Since 1968, parking lights have been produced on the same wiring system as headlights and used concurrently with them as an additional means of illuminating a vehicle automatically, to make cars more visible from the side.

1.3                               PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT
Their main purpose is to design a system that will turn on the parking lights automatically for 30 seconds when an approaching vehicle’s light is detected from the rear or front side.

1.4                      TYPES OF PARKING LIGHT OF A CAR
In the United States, parking lights are typically orange or gold in color to distinguish them from red break lights and white headlights. In other parts of the world, parking lights are typically bright, clear lights.

1.5                                 BENEFITS OF THE PROJECT
Parking lights serve a useful purpose as a backup light in emergencies. If a headlight burns out, the parking light will still shed some light on that side of the car. Additionally, in such a situation, the glow that the parking lights create around the car makes it more obvious that the vehicle is an automobile and not a motorcycle or other vehicle with only one standard headlight.

1.6                                  SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The circuit is built around transistors T1 through T3, MOSFET T4 (BS170) and some discrete components. Darlington photo-transistors T1 and T2 (each L14F1) act as the front and rear sensors. When light from an approaching vehicle falls on the respective photo-transistor, transistor T3 conducts to trigger the gate of MOSFET T4 through R3. Relay RL1 energises for a period determined by resistor R4 and capacitor C1 and switches on the parking lights (B1 through B4) through its N/O contacts. After the predetermined time elapses, relay RL1 de-energises and the parking lights turn off.
Assemble the circuit on a vero board and enclose in a suitable case. Mount the front and rear sensors (photo-transistors T1 and T2) such that these receive light from an approaching vehicle directly, not the ambient light such as street light. Fix 12V bulbs B1 through B4 at an appropriate location in your vehicle or in the parking area.

1.7                          PROJECT WORK ORGANISATION
The various stages involved in the development of this project have been properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis, the project is organized sequentially as follows:
Chapter one of this work is on the introduction to this work. In this chapter, the background, significance, objective limitation and problem of this work were discussed.
Chapter two is on literature review of this work. In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work was reviewed.
Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during the design and construction were discussed.
Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality was analyzed.
Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references.

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

 

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

 

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

 

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

 

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretation of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

 

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation  –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN AUTOMATIC PARKING LIGHT IN A CAR

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