ASSESSMENT OF FREE AND COMPULSORY EDUCATION POLICY IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF EBONYI STATE UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION
The research centres on “the assessment of free and compulsory education policy in Nigeria a study of Ebonyi State Universal Basic Education Scheme. The broad objective is to assess the performance of free and compulsory education in Ebonyi State. The specific objectives are to identify the challenges militating against the implementation of free and compulsory education in Ebonyi State, to ascertain the reasons why there are pockets of school drop outs in Ebonyi State inspite of the ongoing free and compulsory education policy in the state and to evaluate the measures that are put in place by the government to ensure that all Ebonyi children are carried along in the free and compulsory education policy. Survey design was used and data were collected using the instrumentation of questionnaire and were analyzed by table, mean and pearson correlation coefficient. Hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted system theory as the theoretical framework of analysis. The study came up with findings and recommendations: (a) Lack of teachers’ motivation is militating against the actualization of the goals of the Universal Basic education policy in Nigeria and in Ebonyi State in particular. (b) Child labour remains the major reason why there are pockets of drop outs of students and pupils in Ebonyi State inspite of the free education policy. (c) There are lack of effective mechanism put in place to ensure the appropriate appraisal, monitoring and evaluation of the UBE policy in the country especially, in Ebonyi State. (d) Policy inconsistency negate the sustainability of the UBE programme. Recommendations (1) In as much as Nigeria wants to eradicate illiteracy in the country come 2015 according to the MDGs target, government should demonstrate a strong political will to carry out this policy option otherwise, reverse will be the case. (2) As a matter of urgent national issue all hands must be on desks in order to wipe out this national cankerworm (illiteracy) by all and sundry. (3) Teachers salaries should be reviewed up wardly and adequate extra-compensatory measures put in place that conform to the present economic realities of time and so on.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of Contents viii
List of Tables x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Research Questions 5
1.4 Objectives of the Study 6
1.5 Research Hypotheses 6
1.6 Significance of the Study 7
1.7 Scope of the Study 8
1.8 Limitations of the Study 8
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 9
2.1 Empirical Review 9
2.2 Theoretical Review 13
2.2.1 Irregular School Attendance and Dropout by Students 14
2.2.2 Growing Apathy in the Schooling Among Parents and their Wards 16
2.2.3 Policy Somersault in Free Education in Nigeria 20
2.2.4 Lack of Motivation for Teachers 23
2.2.5 Growing Apathy in Teaching Profession 26
2.2.6 Lack of Instructional Materials/Funding 29
2.2.7 Corruption, Decay in Infrastructure and Apathy 32
2.2.8 Lack of Policy Document for UBE Programme 36
2.3 Theoretical Framework of Analysis 56
Relevance of the Theory 57
2.4 Summary of Review of the Literature 58
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 60
3.1 Research Design 60
3.2 Area of the Study 60
3.3 Population of the Study 60
3.4 Sample Size 60
3.5 Sampling Technique 61
3.6 Sources of Data 61
3.7 Validity of the Instrument 62
3.8 Reliability of the Instrument 62
3.9 Analytical Techniques 62
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT/FINDINGS 63
4.2 Test of Hypotheses 75
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION 79
5.1 Lack of Teachers’ Motivation Militate Against the Full Implementation of Free and Compulsory Education Programme in Ebonyi State 79
5.2 Implications of the Study 82
CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 83
6.1 Summary of Findings 83
6.2 Conclusions 84
6.3 Recommendations 85
APPENDIX A 72
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: sex Distribution 63
Table 2: Marital Status 63
Table 3: Age Distribution 64
Table 4: Grade Levels 64
Table 5: Educational Qualifications 65
Table 6: Analysis of questionnaire to ascertain the challenges militating the implementation of free and compulsory education in Ebonyi State 66
Table 7: To Determine the reasons why there are pockets of drop outs of students in Ebonyi state inspite of the ongoing free and compulsory education in the state 69
Table 8: To know how effective the measure put in place to ensure the sustainability of the UBE programme in Ebonyi State 71
It was a beginning of a new dawn in 1999 when the then democratically elected Governor of Ebonyi State of Nigeria, Dr. Sam. Egwu declared his intention to introduce the free and compulsory education in Ebonyi State. This development was born in his mind because of the state’s backwardness in Education in the country. Before now, Ebonyi State was listed in the country as one of the educationally disadvantaged state in Nigeria.
Thereafter., the federal government followed suit in the crusade against illiteracy. The federal government led by General Olusegun Obasanjo in 2003 adopted similar approach towards revitalizing the education sector. The federal government introduced Universal Basic Education Policy (UBE) and mandated every state in the federation to set up state Universal Basic Education Boards to oversee the smooth implementation of this policy option in education.
Education is the bedrock of any nation and every individual. Any nation with large number of educated people is indeed a wealthy nation and any individual who is educated is an asset to the state and by extension, to the nation. Going by this development and in line with current trends in global education system which has assumed super flow dimension, it becomes imperative that Nigeria should buy the idea of educational development that is globally acceptable and nationally essential to the peculiarities of the needs of the people.
The policy witnessed a large turn up of primary and post primary school enrollment and as such increased the literacy level in the country. The Universal Basic Education Boards in every states of the federation is working hard towards ensuring that the policy gets required amount of funds and technical assistance it needs for optimal performance and effectiveness. The policy requires equally, that each state should give out counterpart funds in order to access the federal government subventions of the policy.
Most importantly, the eradication of illiteracy in the globe is one of the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which Nigeria is a co-signatory. The millennium Development Goals will be evaluated in the year 2015 and every aspects of the goals will be critically evaluated. This may be one of the reasons why government both national and states have become restless in the fight against illiteracy and ignorance.
Governments have continued to invest heavily in education through budgetary provisions and grants from donor agencies all over the world. The percentages of national budget in education are above average when compared with other sectors of national economy.
In Ebonyi State, the story is the same. The government has continued to invest heavily in education of its citizens. Both the past and present administration have been doing justice to the free and compulsory education policy. The policy has continued to receive government subvention to sustain its operationability and optimality. What remains now is the assessment of the free and compulsory education in Nigeria and Ebonyi State in particulars with reference to the State Universal Basic Education Board which is the instrument for policy implementation of the programme.
Despite the huge amount of funds, subventions and grants towards the actualization of the programme of free Education in Nigeria and in Ebonyi State in particular, there seem to be pockets of large number of drop outs and illiterate citizen scattered all over the states of the federation.
In addition to this ugly development, some states alleged that they have not accessed the funds for the implementation of this programme even when they have committed their counterpart funds as it is required.
Furthermore, the performances of student of Ebonyi State secondary schools in particular and Nigeria in general in external Examinations like west African Examinations Council (WAEC), National Examinations Council (NECO) and joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) are not encouraging in the last few years.
Consequently, this has given negative image to the national education globally. This has equally resulted in the situation where by foreign countries look down on Nigerian Education’s certification which makes Nigerian students to look inferior in the country of global studentship.
One wonders therefore, what could be problems that militate against the smooth and effective implementation of this policy in our education sector. It is in line with the foregoing that it becomes imperative for us to conduct a brief research on the assessment of free education policy in Ebonyi State.
The following research questions will guide us in this research.
- What are the challenges that prevent the existing of free? and compulsory education in Ebonyi state?
- Why is it that there are still pockets of dropouts of students in Ebonyi state inspite of the ongoing Free and Compulsory Education in Ebonyi state?
- How effective are the measures fix to ensure the sustainability of the UBE programme in Ebonyi State?
The wides objectives of this study is to assess the performance of free compulsory education in Ebonyi State.
However, the specific objectives shall be:
- To identify the challenges that prevents the existing of free and compulsory education in Ebonyi State.
- To ascertain the reasons why there are pockets of school drop outs in Ebonyi State inspite of the ongoing free and compulsory education on Ebonyi State.
- To evaluate the measures that are fix by the government to ensure that all Ebonyi children are carried along in the free and compulsory Education policy.
The hypotheses below shall guide this study.
Ha1: Policy inconsistency is the major challenge preventing the existence of free and compulsory education in Ebonyi State.
Ho1: Policy inconsistency is not the major challenge preventing the existence of free and compulsory education in Ebonyi State.
Ha2: Inadequate sustainable sensitization and advocacy of the UBE programme to the people living in the remotest parts of the Ebonyi State is the reason why there are pockets of dropouts of students inspite of the ongoing free and compulsory education in Ebonyi State.
Ho2: Inadequate sustainable sensitization and advocacy of the programme to the people living in the remotest parts of the state is not the reason why there are pockets dropouts students inspite of the ongoing free and compulsory education in Ebonyi.
Ha3: The measures fixed by the governments to ensure the sustainability of the programme in Ebonyi State are effective.
Ho3: The measures fixed by the governments to ensures the sustainability of the porgramme in Ebonyi State are not effective.
The research will help in many ways both to the research and to the education sector in Ebonyi State. This can be done when the government will adopt some of the recommendations and findings of this study that will help in sustaining free Education policy in Ebonyi State.
Secondly, this research serves as a partial fulfillment for the award of post graduate diploma in public Administration.
Again, it gives the researcher an ample opportunity to contribute to knowledge.
The study has its scope in Ebonyi State with a particular reference to Ebonyi State universal education Board to make the study manageable and purposeful.
In very research, there is bound to be limitations that a researcher will meet. In this study, the researcher acknowledges that constraints like; uncooperative attitudes by some respondents, difficulty in accessing data from Ebonyi State Universal basic Education Board and other challenges that may untold in the course of this research. However, these limitations will be handled in a manner that they will not negatively affect the outcome of this study.
ASSESSMENT OF FREE AND COMPULSORY EDUCATION POLICY IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF EBONYI STATE UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION