PHONOLOGICAL INTERFERENCE IN NIGERIA NEWSCAST
Language and man are in inseparable and since languages of the world come in contact, there is bound to be a problem like mother tongue interference which is a sociolinguistic phenomenon. This work takes for granted that grammatical competence is totally different from phonological competence and it has worked on this premise use phonological conventions in analyzing the sampled data. The findings proved that interference at the phonological level is a major problem confronting our media houses in Nigeria with respect to spoken English. Suggestions have been proffered to effect the envisaged repair in the aspects indentified.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TABLE OF CONTENT vi
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.0 Background of the Study 1
1.1 The Research Problem 3
1.1.1 Research Question\ 3
1.2 Research Purpose 3
1.3 Scope of the study 4
1.4 Justification 5
1.5 Methodology 6
1.6 Data Description 7
1.7 Definition of Some Terms 8
1.7.1 Second Language (Target language) 8
1.7.2 News 9
1.7.3 Phonology 9
CHAPTER TWO 11
2.0 INTRODUCTION 11
2.1 Bilingualism/Multilingualism 11
2.2 The Status of English in Nigeria 13
2.3 Language Acquisition 15
2.3.1 Second Language Acquisition 19
2.4 Mother Tongue Interference 20
2.4.1 Phonological Interference 21
2.5 The Position of the Media in our Society 24
CHAPTER THREE 26
DATA ANALYSIS 26
3.0 INTRODUCTION 26
3.1 Under-Differentiation 27
3.2 Substitution 29
3.4 Epenthesis 39
CHAPTER FOUR 42
4.1 Summary 42
If the question “what is language? Is asked, it has many senses and can be variously defined. It can be language of a particular field like science, humanity just to mention few. It can also be the animal language, sign language and many other types of languages.
Humanity language especially spoken dominates them all. Human language is natural. According to Adeboye Chis experiences and thoughts”
In Adeboyo’s words above, human language is one out of many by which a person’s experiences and thought can be organized. This supports the many senses that language has. And also, without language, (spoken) thoughts will never be born and experiences of life will be wasted because no one will be able to learn from them. Communication is the major bridge that links the whole world.
Communication is a crucial factor in the society at large and there is pieces of evidence that prove this. The global village and the internet prove this among others.
Language whether written, spoken, sign or through any means is a tools for communication and English language, out of many languages of the world has emerged the most used language all over the world.
The global village use this language (English) and it stands to be the language of the net.
English language accords respect and pride to its speakers but some have been left with the effective use of this language especially in the countries where the language (English) is not the mother tongue or the first language one comes in contact with, for instance in countries like Nigeria, Ghana and many others.
The language teachers, the broadcasters and few others have been left with the duty of speaking the correct version of English language in Nigeria.
And if this proof is true, these categories of people should speak error free English. However, it is unfortunate that some of our broadcasters still goof on air and this distorts communication. In the light of the above, this research is out to work on the use of language in English newscast under the little “mother tongue interference in English newscast in Nigeria”: A case of recorded NTA News.
This work knows that some issues that have become problems in our media houses have been handled by some scholars. For instance, Medubi (2007) and Okoye (2007). Both of them dwelt more on the problem confronting the press in Nigeria but not directly as this work will handle it. No one has really worked on how mother tongue interference distorts communication in our media house in Nigeria. This will look into this problem and will try to proffer solutions.
In handling the research problem above, this research will focus its attention on this question: How much does mother tongue interference distorts communications in our media houses in Nigeria?
The purpose of this research is to achieve some set goals.
Firstly, this research is to further enlighten the media on the importance of Standard English.
Secondly, this research is to also help the second language teachers. Since they are the foundation layer of all learners and when a foundation learner is solid, anything built on it will stand erect.
Lastly, this research will be useful for the media and the second speakers of the English language on how to produce sounds of English that will be free from mother tongue interference.
This work will focus on mother tongue interference in English newscast” Different authors have dealt with this topic from different perspectives.
Hoffmann (1991) identified four major types of mother tongues interference in English.
- Interference at the phonological level
- Interference at the grammatical level.
- Interference at the lexical level
- Interference in spelling
Alabi (2007) also identified three types of mother tongue interference in English which are:
Phonological interference, lexical interference and grammatical interference.
This research will concentrate on the phonological level of mother tongue interference because it deals mainly with speech (Day to day conversation).
This research topic “phonological interference in television Newscast in Nigeria” is important because the problem is obvious in almost all the media house in Nigeria.
Some authors have outlined the problems confronting our media in Nigeria but few have given us solutions.
An author like Okoye (2007) outlined the problem of the press in Nigeria but did not give solutions to such problems. And this research is set to look into the problems and proffer solutions to them with top priority given to the phonological aspect.
This research is to analyze the Nigeria Television Authority (N.T.A) main News. This television station has two main News sections. Basically, the News at seven O’clock (7:00 Am) which is normally known as (AM Express) and the news at nine o’clock in the evening (9:00 pm) which is known as NTA network news.
This research will analyze one of the main news, the news at nine o’clock in the evening which is usually broadcast by two people unlike the news at seven o’clock in the morning which is shorter.
More people after listen and watch the news at ten o’clock in the evening perhaps because it is fuller or later than first news.
Some of the worker in the newsroom will be interviewed to know the philosophy, ideology and brief history of the television station.
The data will be analyzed using phonological rules because this is the most pervasion type of interference according to Romaine (1989, p.52).
In the process, if questionnaire will be useful, it will also be composed and given to some selected people in the society to know their reactions to the media house and also oral interviews can be conducted.
These are some of the methods that have chosen for the success of this work.
Nigeria Television Authority UHF (NTA) was established in 1977, Sola Omole is the current General Manager of (NTA). This television station has many department such as Administration, Accounts marketing, News, Programmes and Engineering department etc. This station covers up the (36) thirty six state in Nigeria. This television station is owned by the country and it is best in all things especially in informing people and updating them in all useful and educating matters.
Most people hardly watch and listen to the news at seven o’clock in the morning because that is the time they always prepare for work and for other things.
Mother Tongue/First Language (LI)
Mother tongue also called the first language with in hi/her environment. Mother tongue is slightly different from the first language. Mother tongue is the language of the parents especially the father while the first language is the language of the environment.
The child’s mother tongue can be his/her first language and it may not also be. For instance, an Igbo child grows up in Kano State where the language in such environment is “Hausa” the Igbo child will conveniently speak, “Hausa” because of his/her environment.
A second language (L2) is that which exists side by side with the indigenous languages in a bilingual or multilingual situation. It is usually an official language and as such enjoys a high status within the nation. A second language can be the fourth or the third language to be acquired but as long as someone has a language before learning another, it will be referred to as the second language or the target language.
Danuta (1998, p.4) says
News is a late middle word that means “tidings” New information of recent events. Even if we accept this definition as a useful description of what newspaper delivers. A more useful definition might be information about recent events that are of interest to sufficiently large groups, or that may affect the lives of a sufficiently large group.
Akmajian (2001, p. 109) etal says “Phonology is the sub-field of linguistics that studies the structure and systematic patterning of sound of human language”.
In his word, phonology is used in two ways. The first one describes the sounds of a language and the rules governing the use of those sounds. While the second refers to the part of the general theory of human language that is concerned with the universal properties of natural language sound system.
Since language and man are not the same and they cannot be separated, problems will always arise from the two angles. Solution must also be provided to such problems in order to have effective communication in the society.
PHONOLOGICAL INTERFERENCE IN NIGERIA NEWSCAST